|Scientific Name:||Monizia edulis|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered D ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Carvalho, J.A. & Bilz, M.|
Monizia edulis is endemic to Madeira and Deserta Grande where it covers a geographic range of 226 km². The habitat of the species, rocky cliffs, is declining due to infrastructure development, recreational activities and the invasion of exotic species. Collection, fires, droughts, storms, and landslides are all further threats to this species. Despite an increasing trend, the total population counts less than 50 mature individuals and this plant is therefore assessed as Critically Endangered.
|Range Description:||Monizia edulis is endemic to Madeira and Deserta Grande, Portugal. It is found at two localities in Madeira: in the Central Mountain Massif and in an islet of the north coast, and on rocky cliffs in Deserta Grande up to 300 m asl (Jardim et al. in: Martín et al. 2008).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population counts less than 50 mature individuals but has an increasing trend (Jardim et al. in: Martín et al. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This plant grows among Macaronesian endemic flora on rocky cliffs and on terraces with soil accumulations (Jardim et al. in: Martín et al. 2008). It is characteristic of the Habitats Directive listed habitat 1250 "Vegetated sea cliffs with endemic flora of the Macaronesian coasts" (Commission of the European Communities 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat is habitat degradation due to infrastructure development, recreational activities and the invasion of exotic species which leads to increased competition. This plant is also collected. Fires, droughts, storms, and landslides can all affect this species (Jardim et al. in: Martín et al. 2008).|
Monizia edulis is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).
Conservation measures that are needed for this species are habitat protection, restoration, and management, species recovery programmes, and public awareness campaigns. The biology and ecology of the species, population dynamics, and the level of harvesting should be studied (Jardim et al. in: Martín et al. 2008).
|Citation:||Fernandes, F. 2013. Monizia edulis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 March 2015.|
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