Primula palinuri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Primulales Primulaceae

Scientific Name: Primula palinuri Petagna

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2008-09-10
Assessor(s): Gangale, C., Uzunov, D. & Cesca, G.
Reviewer(s): Abeli, T. & Bilz, M.
Primula palinuri is endemic to south Italy and extends across the Tirrenic coast. It occurs in three regions: Campania, Basilicata and Calabria, where it has an extent of occurrence of 9,198 km² and an area of occupancy of 60 km². There are six main subpopulations which are severely fragmented and the whole population is estimated to be around 18,500 mature individuals. A past reduction of the populations of up to 50% took place in some regions. The most important threats are tourism development, invasive species, collection, and human-induced fires. It is therefore assessed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Primula palinuri is endemic to south Italy and extends across the Tirrenic coast. It occurs in three regions: Campania, Basilicata and Calabria. The extent of occurrence (calculated with alpha-hull: alpha = 2) is 9,198.32 km² and the area of occupancy calculated on a 2 x 2 km grid is 60 km² (Uzunov et al. in: Rossi et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Italy (Italy (mainland))
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:60Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:9198.32
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:3Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are several nuclei of individuals belonging to six main subpopulations which are severely fragmented:
  • Capo Palinuro (10 nuclei);
  • Punta degli Infreschi (9 nuclei);
  • Punta Caina (8 nuclei);
  • Grotta della Madonna (2 nuclei);
  • Isola di Dino/Scogliera Fiuzzi (16 nuclei);
  • Capo Scalea (2 nuclei).
The whole population is estimated to be 18,500 mature individuals +/- 20%. A past reduction of the populations has been estimated to be 50% for Calabria, 50% for Campania and 2% for Basilicata (Uzunov et al. in: Rossi et al. 2008).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:18500Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Primula palinuri grows on calcareous substrate with neutral pH. The species prefers northern, northwestern or northeastern slopes. The vegetation can be described as Centaureo cinerariae-Campanuletum fragilis subass. Primuletosum palinuri of Dianthion rupicolae (Brullo and Marcenò 1979).
It occurs in the Habitats Directive listed habitat 1240 "Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic Limonium spp." (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is locally collected for horticultural use.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The most important threat affecting the species is the development of human settlements especially for tourism. Other threats are: invasive species in the growing sites of Capo Palinuri and Scogliera Fiuzzi and the specimen collection in the most accessible sites. Human-induced fires are potential threats (Uzunov et al. 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Primula palinuri is listed on Annex II of the Habitats Directive and under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).

All the population except for Capo Scalea, Scoglio Friuzzi Grotta della Madonna are inside the Cilento National Park. This plant is cultivated in several Botanical Gardens: Pietra Corva, Hanbury, Jena, Padova, Parma, Bologna, Napoli, Portici, Cosenza.

Citation: Gangale, C., Uzunov, D. & Cesca, G. 2011. Primula palinuri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T161810A5498316. . Downloaded on 27 May 2018.
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