|Scientific Name:||Cruriraja parcomaculata (von Bonde & Swart, 1923)|
Cruriraja triangularis Smith, 1964
|Taxonomic Notes:||Three species of Cruriraja have been described from off southern Africa; Cruriraja durbanensis (von Bonde and Swart 1923), C. parcomaculata Smith 1964 and C. triangularis Smith 1964. Smith (1964) redescribed C. parcomaculata from the Eastern Cape of South Africa, assuming that the Cruriraja present in the Western and Eastern Cape was the same as von Bonde and Swart's R. parcomaculata from KwaZulu-Natal (Compagno and Ebert 2007). Smith also described C. triangularis from two specimens off Durban, as distinct from C. parcomaculata Smith 1964. Recent critical examination of the type material by Compagno and Ebert (2007) indicates that C. triangularis Smith 1964 is in fact a junior synonym of Raia parcomaculata von Bonde and Swart 1923. Cruriraja parcomaculata of Smith 1964 and subsequent authors (Wallace (1967), Hulley (1970), Hulley (1986) and Compagno et al. (1989, 1991)) apparently needs a replacement name (Compagno and Ebert 2007).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Valenti, S.V. & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)|
Cruriraja paromaculata is a small (to 41 cm TL) deepwater skate, endemic to southern Africa in the western Indian Ocean. Known from depths of 65-680 m, with most records below 200 m on muddy slope bottoms. There are few trawl fisheries at the depths where this species occurs because the strong Agulhas current makes trawling there potentially dangerous. Insufficient information is available to assess this species beyond Data Deficient. Although a small species, it may have life history characteristics typical of deep, cool water elasmobranchs (slow growth, late maturity and relatively long life) that could make it vulnerable to future expansion of deepwater fisheries.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Western Indian Ocean: known only from 23°S off Mozambique and off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Compagno and Ebert 2007, Compagno et al. 1989).|
Native:Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is reportedly extremely abundant in deeper waters near Durban (Wallace 1967). Compagno and Ebert (2007) report records from 22 research stations.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This deepwater skate is recorded at depths of 65-680 m, with most records below 200 m. Attains a maximum size of 41 cm (total length) TL, and 24 cm disc width (DW) (Hulley 1988). Like other skates, reproduction is presumably oviparous, but nothing else is known of its biology.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are few trawl fisheries at the depths this species occurs because the strong Agulhas current makes trawling there potentially dangerous (M.J. Smale pers. obs.). Any future expansion of fisheries to greater depths within the species range should be closely monitored given the species' apparently restricted distribution.|
No management or conservation efforts are currently in place. Like many deeper water species more information on biology, ecology and importance in fisheries are required to further assess status and any future conservation needs. Where taken, catches require monitoring, particularly as deepwater fisheries expand worldwide.
The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA-Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and management of all chondrichthyan species in the region.
|Amended reason:||This amended version of the 2007 assessment was created because this assessment previously appeared under the name Cruriraja triangularis. It has now been confirmed that this assessment actually refers to C. parcomaculata and not to C. triangluaris.|
|Citation:||Smale, M.J. 2018. Cruriraja parcomaculata (amended version of 2009 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T161678A124709237.Downloaded on 16 October 2018.|
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