16084490-1

Paracinema tricolor 

Scope: Europe
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Orthoptera Acrididae

Scientific Name: Paracinema tricolor (Thunberg, 1815)
Common Name(s):
English Tricolor Grasshopper
Synonym(s):
Gryllus tricolor Thunberg, 1815
Taxonomic Source(s): Eades, D.C., Otte, D., Cigliano, M.M. and Braun, H. 2016. Orthoptera Species File. Version 5.0/5.0. Available at: http://Orthoptera.SpeciesFile.org.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-04-19
Assessor(s): Hochkirch, A., Ivkovic, S., Gomboc, S., Chobanov, D.P., Presa, J.J., Monnerat, C., Lemonnier-Darcemont, M., Puskas, G., Korsunovskaya, O., Ferreira, S., Willemse, L.P.M., Rutschmann, F., Kleukers, R., Kristin, A. & Szovenyi, G.
Reviewer(s): Bushell, M. & Cálix, M.
Contributor(s): Skejo, J. Skejo & Danielczak, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Nieto, A.
Justification:
European regional assessment: Near Threatened (NT)
EU 28 regional assessment: Near Threatened (NT)

The Tricolor Grasshopper (Paracinema tricolor) is widespread from South Africa to southern Europe and South Asia. This species is affiliated with wetland habitats which are rapidly declining in large parts of its range. It is assessed as Near Threatened since its area of occupancy (AOO) is most likely smaller than 3,000 km², the population is severely fragmented, and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and in the extent and quality of its habitat; thus making it close to qualifying for a threatened category under Criterion B. No significant immigration from outside the assessment region is expected due to its strong habitat affiliation. The major threat to this species is drainage of its habitat, and it is also threatened by transformation of its habitat into farmland, overgrazing, water pollution and urbanisation. More research into its population trend, ecology and threats is required. Its wetland habitats need better protection and destroyed wetlands should be restored.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Tricolor Grasshopper is widespread from South Africa (including Madagascar) to southern Europe and South Asia (Dirsh 1965). In Europe it is found in the Mediterranean region, i.e. on the Iberian Peninsula, in southern France and Corsica, in Italy including Sicily and Sardinia, and on the Balkans from Greece to Slovenia and Ukraine (Heller 2013). Its extent of occurrence (EOO) in Europe is ca 4.3 million km², and in the EU 28 it is ca 3.6 million km². This species' area of occupancy (AOO) in Europe is between 1,500 and 3,500 km², and in the EU 28 between 1,400 and 3,000 km².
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Greece (Greece (mainland)); Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia - Regionally Extinct); Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Serbia (Serbia); Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Krym, Ukraine (main part))
Possibly extinct:
Albania
Regionally extinct:
Switzerland
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1500-3500
Range Map:16084490-1

Population [top]

Population:This species is widespread, but because of its affiliation with wetland habitats the subpopulations are rather small and isolated. The distances between subpopulations are very large and re-colonisation of extinct sites is unlikely. The population is therefore considered severely fragmented. A strong decline of this species is assumed for Italy (Massa et al. 2012). The species is also declining in Catalonia (Olmo-Vidal 2002) and on the Balkans (S. Ivkovic and D. Chobanov pers. comm. 2016). It is extinct in Switzerland (Baur et al. 2006) and also possibly extinct in Albania (G. Puskas pers. comm. 2016) and on Sicily (Massa 2011). The overall population size is decreasing.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in wetland habitats with tall grass vegetation, including rice fields (Massa et al. 2012). It is a good flyer (Iorgu and Iorgu 2008).
Systems:Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is not utilised.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat to this species is drainage of its habitat. It is also threatened by transformation of its habitat into farmland, overgrazing, water pollution (Lemonnier-Darcemont et al. 2014) and urbanisation (S. Gomboc pers. comm. 2016). The increasing number of droughts as a consequence of climate change may also threaten this species (J.J. Presa pers. comm. 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no specific conservation measures in place for this species. It is listed as "priority 3" (equivalent to Near Threatened) on the French Red List (Sardet and Defaut 2004), as Vulnerable on the Serbian Red List and as Endangered on the Macedonian Red List (Lemonnier-Darcemont et al. 2014). It occurs in protected areas. More research into its population trend, ecology and threats is required. Its wetland habitats need better protection and destroyed wetlands should be restored.

Citation: Hochkirch, A., Ivkovic, S., Gomboc, S., Chobanov, D.P., Presa, J.J., Monnerat, C., Lemonnier-Darcemont, M., Puskas, G., Korsunovskaya, O., Ferreira, S., Willemse, L.P.M., Rutschmann, F., Kleukers, R., Kristin, A. & Szovenyi, G. 2016. Paracinema tricolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T16084490A74509446. . Downloaded on 23 January 2018.
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