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Papio hamadryas

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Papio hamadryas
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Hamadryas Baboon, Sacred Baboon
French Droguera, Hamadryas
Spanish Papión Negro

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Gippoliti, S. & Ehardt, T.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern as this species is widespread and abundant, and there are no major range-wide threats believed to be resulting in a significant decline.
History:
1990 Rare (IUCN 1990)
1988 Rare (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in north-east Africa. It is principally found in Ethiopia, although its range extends from the Red Sea Hills and Suakin (Sudan) through Eritrea and Djibouti (especially in the Goda Mountains) to northern Somalia. It is also found in the Red Sea Hills in the south-west Arabian Peninsula opposite the Horn of Africa. Historically, its range extended into Egypt, but not into recent times (i.e., post 1500AD; see Osborn and Osbornová 1998).
Countries:
Native:
Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Yemen
Regionally extinct:
Egypt
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is abundant, with the majority of the population in Ethiopia, and may even have increased because of loss of predators and small-scale agriculture. Kunzel et al. (2000) estimated the total population in Djibouti at around 2,000 animals, and that the population was stable.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits arid subdesert, steppe, hillsides, escarpments, and mountains bordering the Red Sea, generally at altitudes up to 1,500 m. However, it appears to be seasonally migratory in at least some parts of its range in Ethiopia, where bands may move up into neighbouring mountainous areas (up to 3,300 m in the Simien Mountains National Park) in the wet season. This species is dependent on water, and is never found far from water sources. It is an opportunistic omnivore, and seasonally important foods include grass, buds, invertebrates, and the fruits of desert plants (notably heglig Balanites and buffalo thorn Ziziphus). The basic social unit consists of one male and several females.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Capes are used in ceremonial cloaks. Offtake for research purposes was in the past and has apparently now stopped.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major range-wide threats at present, although locally it may be at risk through loss of habitat due to major agricultural expansion and irrigation projects. In addition, adult males are hunted for their skins (which are used to embellish ceremonial cloaks in Ethiopia). They were formerly trapped in large numbers for medical research.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed under Appendix II of CITES, and is classed as Vermin in the African Convention along with all other species of baboon. A 'pure' subpopulation of this species is found in the Simien Mountains National Park, while P. hamadryas-P. anubis hybrids occur in the Awash National Park. In addition, the species occurs in the proposed Yangudi Rassa National Park, the Harar Wildlife Sanctuary, and a number of Wildlife Reserves in the lower Awash valley and in northern Eritrea (although it is important to note that the Awash reserves are all affected by agricultural schemes).

Citation: Gippoliti, S. & Ehardt, T. 2008. Papio hamadryas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.
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