Danaus plexippus 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Lepidoptera Nymphalidae

Scientific Name: Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Monarch
Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Not Applicable (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-01-29
Assessor(s): van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J.
Reviewer(s): van Swaay, C. & Cuttelod, A. (IUCN Red List Unit)
This species is considered Not Applicable, as Europe is at the margin of its global distribution range.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is resident in coastal areas of the Canary Islands, except Lanzarote, and in the Malaga province in the south of Spain. In other areas, it is only a vagrant. It is a relatively new species for Europe. It was first reported from the Canary Islands in 1880, but the populations in the south of Spain were only discovered in 1980. Sea level-100 m. This is a strong migrant species, which is found on most continents. Europe is at the margin of the global distribution area of the species.
Countries occurrence:
Portugal; Spain
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a local species, restricted to (semi-) natural areas.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:There are only a few populations of the Monarch in Europe and these are in the south. However, in America it is famous for its migration behaviour and it can even be found as a rare visitor in the coastal areas of North-west Europe. The populations are situated in warm to very warm dry places, such as erosion gullies. The butterfly can also be seen in parks and gardens. The populations are usually small and surrounded by agricultural areas. In Spain, the eggs are laid on the milkweed Asclepias curassavica and on the Canary Islands also on the related Bristly-fruited Silkweed (Gomphocarpus fruticosus). The butterflies breed continually and may have several generations a year. The use of herbicides and insecticides and the burning of refuse are threatening them with extinction. Habitats: agricultural land and artificial landscapes (40%), tree lines, hedges, small woods, bocage, parkland dehesa (20%), scrub and grassland (20%), fallow land, waste places (20%).
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Not examined.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No specific conservation actions are needed at the European level.

Citation: van Swaay, C., Wynhoff, I., Verovnik, R., Wiemers, M., López Munguira, M., Maes, D., Sasic, M., Verstrael, T., Warren, M. & Settele, J. 2010. Danaus plexippus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T159971A5346714. . Downloaded on 20 August 2018.
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