|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Cameron, R., de Frias Martins, A.M. & Teixeira, D.
||Groh, K., Seddon, M.B., Neubert, E. & Allen, D.J.
This species is restricted to Santa Maria Island in the Azores Islands (Portugal), where it has a very small distribution, with a current extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO) of 4 km2. The species was previously known from three localities within a small area on Pico Alto and from Fontinhas, to the southeast of the mountain. There are no records after 2008 from three of the four known localities (Fontinhas, and the top and southern slope of Pico Alto), with the only known probably extant locality (shells only) on the northern slope of the mountain, with shells found in 2011. The species is threatened by habitat degradation and habitat destruction, as well as increasing frequency of droughts. The species is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v)), based on the restricted range and a continuing decline in habitat area and quality.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Endangered (E)
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Santa Maria Island in the Azores Archipelago (Martins et al. 1991, Cameron et al. 2012, A. Frias Martins pers. comm. 2016), where the species has a very small distribution. The species was formerly known from four localities on the island; the type locality at Fontinhas (Martins 1981), and from three localities on Pico Alto (one on the northern slope, one at the top of the mountain (collected in the 1990s), and one on the southern slope). The species was refound at the two localities on the southern and northern slopes of the mountain in 2008 (R. Cameron pers. comm. 2017), however in 2011, the species was only found at the single locality on the northern slope of Pico Alto (A. Frias Martins pers. comm. 2017). Hence the only recent records of the species (shells only) are from the northern slope of Pico Alto, with shells found in 2011 (A. Frias Martins pers. comm. 2017).|
|♦ Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||4||♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||4|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|♦ Number of Locations:||1|
|♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||300|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|