|Scientific Name:||Pupilla muscorum|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This widespread species has been investigated by Proschwitz et al. (2009) revealing that there is another species often confounded with P. muscorum, which proved to be a separate species (Pupilla pratensis (Clessin, 1871)).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Cuttelod, A. & Bilz, M.|
This species is relatively widespread and there is no threat known to this species. It is therefore considered to be Least Concern (LC).
Pupilla muscorum is a widespread species that occurs in almost all countries of the European Union. Its exact distribution is unknown, because parts of the literature records refer to P. pratenis rather than to P. muscorum. In Ireland, P. muscorum is in decline in most parts of its Irish range. It is now local and rare on northern coasts where it was formerly common. It has almost vanished from the southern part of the central limestone plain probably due to the 'improvement' of pastures for agriculture (Byrne et al. 2009).
Native:Andorra; Austria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sicilia); Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Kaliningrad); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It has suffered a 66% distributional decline in Ireland. The coastal populations are becoming increasingly rare and local (Byrne et al. 2009). For the other subpopulations, there is no coherent information available on the population size or trend of this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pupilla muscorum is restricted to dry, warm calcareous habitats and it favours minimally enriched calcareous pasture inland, or coastal dune pastures in Ireland (Byrne et al. 2009). In general it is known from dry meadows and grazed land on calcareous substrata.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not used.|
|Major Threat(s):||Under grazing (reduction of open grassland habitats) may be a major threat to the species (Byrne et al. 2009).|
|Conservation Actions:||In Ireland, it is currently listed as Endangered (Byrne et al. 2009). Elsewhere, there is no conservation action in place for this species.|
|Citation:||Neubert, E. 2013. Pupilla muscorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 April 2015.|
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