|Scientific Name:||Valvata piscinalis|
|Species Authority:||(Muller, 1774)|
Valvata pulchella S. Studer 1789
|Taxonomic Notes:||The subgenus for this species is Valvata (Cincinna) piscinalis (O.F. Muller 1774). Kantor et al. (2009) list Valvata piscinalis var. fluviatilis (Colbeau 1859) as a synonym of Cincinna contorta.
This species has many recognised subspecies, including:
Valvata piscinalis alpestris (Kuster 1853)
Valvata piscinalis antiqua (Morris 1838)
Valvata piscinalis piscinalis (O.F. Muller 1774)
Valvata piscinalis geyeri (Menzel 1904)
Valvata piscinalis discors (Westerlund 1886)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Seddon, M.B., Kebapçı, U. & Van Damme, D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Böhm, M., Aldridge, D., Lopes-Lima , M. & Numa, C.|
|Contributor(s):||Pešić, V., Glöer , P. & Vinarski, M.|
Valvata piscinalis has been assessed as Least Concern (LC). This species is widely distributed throughout both its native and introduced ranges (in North America) and is described as one of the most common Euro-Siberian freshwater snails. It is resistant to a moderate degree of pollution and eutrophication, and therefore although the threats to this species are not known, it is currently unlikely to be impacted by any major threat processes.
|Range Description:||The native range of this species encompasses Europe, Caucasus, western Siberia, and Central Asia. It has invaded the United States and Canada and can be found in Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Wisconsin, Ontario and Quebec (NatureServe 2010). It was first recorded in the United States in 1897 in Lake Ontario, New York. It has since spread into Lake Erie, St. Lawrence and Hudson Rivers, Champlain Lake, Cayuga Lake, Superior Bay in Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and Oneida Lake (Grigorovich et al. 2005). It is also found in Turkey (Van Damme pers. comm. 2011), with records from Iran (Mansoorian 2000) in the Gilan, Mazandaran and Lorestan Provinces cited by Glöer and Pesic (2012).
The subspecies Valvata piscinalis alpestris is distributed in Austria, Germany and Switzerland (Fauna Europaea Web Service 2004).
The subspecies Valvata piscinalis antiqua is distributed in Austria, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Romania, Switzerland, the Netherlands and United Kingdom (Fauna Europaea Web Service 2004).
The subspecies Valvata piscinalis piscinalis is distributed throughout Europe (Fauna Europaea Web Service 2004).
Native:Albania; Armenia (Armenia, Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang); Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Georgia; Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, Kaliningrad, South European Russia, West Siberia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); Turkmenistan; Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland); Uzbekistan
Introduced:Canada (Ontario, Québec); United States (Georgia - Native, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is described as common in European freshwaters (Grigorovich et al. 2005). Global population is estimated at > 1,000,000 individuals (NatureServe 2010). Van den Berg et al. (1997) cite a density of ca. 5,000 ind/m2 in two Dutch lakes and Jakubik (2008) a density of 67 ind/m2 in rivers in Poland.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species typically inhabits both standing and slightly flowing waters, and is found in lakes, rivers, creeks, canals, ditches and reservoirs (Grigorovich et al. 2005). It prefers a substrate of sand or silt, and feeds upon detritus and diatoms (Van Damme pers. comm. 2011). This species is known for its wide environmental tolerance, rapid growth and high fecundity. It may spawn two or three times per year and can produce up to 150 eggs each time which are deposited on vegetation. Individuals reach sexual maturity at around one year old, and have a longevity of approximately 13 – 21 months (Grigorovich et al. 2005). The species is a common first intermediate host for digenean trematodes of the genus Echinoparyphium (e.g. E. recurvatum) (Evans et al. 1981, Grabda-Kazubska and Kiseliene 1991) .|
|Major Threat(s):||The threats to this species are unknown.|
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. This species has been given a NatureServe Global Heritage Status Rank of G5 (NatureServe 2010).
|Citation:||Seddon, M.B., Kebapçı, U. & Van Damme, D. 2014. Valvata piscinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 April 2015.|
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