|Scientific Name:||Viviparus contectus|
|Species Authority:||(Millet, 1813)|
Vivaparus brachya Bourguignat, 1880
Viviparus carniolica Bourguignat, 1880
Viviparus communis Bourguignat, 1880
Viviparus corcyrensis Kobelt, 1908
Viviparus croatica Kobelt, 1908
Viviparus dalmatica Kobelt, 1908
Viviparus isseli Bourguignat, 1880
Viviparus kormosi Kobelt, 1909
Viviparus listeri Forbes & Hanley, 1850
Viviparus russiensis Milachewitsch, 1881
Viviparus turrita Kobelt, 1909
Viviparus vera Frauenfeld, 1862
|Taxonomic Notes:||Kantor et al. (2009) put this in the genus Contectiana Bourguignat, 1880 following the volume of Fauna Ukraine (Vol. 29). However the majority of users still consider this to be a subgeneric level classification.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Kebapçı, U., Seddon, M.B. & Van Damme, D.|
|Contributor(s):||Cianfanelli, S., Manganelli, G., Giusti, F., Killeen, I., Moorkens, E., Vavrova, L., Offord, S., Duncan, C., Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A. & Richman, N.|
The species is still widespread within its known range and is moderately pollution sensitive; however, there is evidence of decline in some parts of its range. It therefore requires efforts to reduce the impact of pollution, in order for the status of the species to improve. At present the rate of decline does not meet the thresholds for threatened species, although it may locally be threatened with extinction. It is assessed as Least Concern.
Viviparus contectus is a Palearctic species, occurring over most of the European states in the west, north and east, but much rarer in southern Europe. It is widespread in northern and central Europe, and is recorded from the UK in west of the region, to northern countries of Sweden, Latvia, Estonia and Denmark, through to Germany, Switzerland, south to Italy, Slovenia and east to Greece and Bulgaria.This species is mainly Palaearctic in distribution extending to western Siberia (Welter-Schultes 2011). It is also spread across Europe via the aquarium trade (D. van Damme pers. comm. 2012).
There are records from Turkey (Kebapci and Yildrim 2010), from the larger water bodies, such as lakes and ponds Karaot pond (Province Isparta), Beysehir Lake (Province Konya) as well as older records from the Black Sea Region (Schütt 1965) and Lakes Region (Bilgin 1980). However, the species hybridises with V. ater, thus rendering identification difficult (Trüb and Ribi 1997).
Native:Albania; Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Kaliningrad); Slovakia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia); United Kingdom (Great Britain)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species can live up to 13 years. Maturity is reached after three months for the spring generation and eight months for the autumn generation (Welter-Schultes 2011). Despite its widespread distribution, population trends are currently thought to be decreasing in parts of its range.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives in generally lentic habitats, in large slow-flowing rivers, large drainage ditches, fenland dykes, ditches on grazing marshes, and occasionally in large ponds and lakes (Welter-Schultes 2011).|
|Use and Trade:||The species is collected for the aquarium trade (D. van Damme pers. comm. 2012).|
|Major Threat(s):||The main potential threats to the species are pollution of its habitats through eutrophication or other chemical sources – especially intensification of agriculture, alteration of water courses, changes to flow regimes, and over-frequent dredging – particularly of drainage ditches on grazing marsh complexes. The species is also collected for the aquarium trade (D. van Damme pers. comm. 2012).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measurements in place. However, several subpopulations are in protected areas.|
|Citation:||Kebapçı, U., Seddon, M.B. & Van Damme, D. 2014. Viviparus contectus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.|
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