Melanoides tuberculata


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculata
Species Authority: (Müller, 1774)
Nerita tuberculata Müller, 1774
Thiara tuberculata (Mueller, 1774)
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-03-04
Assessor(s): Madhyastha, A.
Reviewer(s): Daniel, B.A., Molur, S., Allen, D., Able, J. & García, N.
Contributor(s): Neubert, E. & Amr, Z.S.S.
Melanoides tuberculata has a worldwide distribution with no specific threats affecting it and hence it is assessed as Least Concern globally and regionally.
2010 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Melanoides tuberculata has a very broad distribution. It is found in northern and southern Africa; eastern Mediterranean countries, the entire Arabian Peninsula (except in the Empty Quarter), south and southeast Asia (including numerous records from Bangladesh, Nepal and from much of India), southern China (including records from Hong Kong and Hainan), Japan, Malaysia, and northern Australia (Yueying Liu 1979, Brown 1994, Ramakrishna and Dey 2007). It was introduced to the Americas. It is distributed throughout India except Kashmir.
Algeria; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Burundi; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; India (Andaman Is., Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chattisgarh, Dadra-Nagar-Haveli, Daman, Darjiling, Delhi, Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkand, Karaikal, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mahé, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Nicobar Is., Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Japan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Libya; Malawi; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nepal; Niger; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo Province); South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; United Arab Emirates; Viet Nam; Yemen (North Yemen, Socotra, South Yemen); Zimbabwe
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


There is no information on the population and its trends for Melanoides tuberculata, but survey data suggest that it is relatively widespread and common.

Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Melanoides tuberculata inhabits clear water with rocky or sandy bottom in rapid flowing mountain streams. It is also found in pools, lakes and ditches. Melanoides tuberculata is the intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani, Metagonimus trematode and Diorchitrema formosanum.
Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The use of the species as a food source for people, fish and poultry requires confirmation; it is unlikely to be a food source for humans or poultry because it is relatively small and has a strong shell. In addition it is operculate and retreats rather deep within the shell. It is used though as a fish food for molluscivore/omnivore fish such as carp which have crushing pharyngeal teeth, and may be assumed to be important in some Asian countries where fish farming is important, where the species may be used, being a cheap and abundant source of protein (D. van Damme pers. comm. 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Melanoides tuberculata inhabits clear water with rocky or sandy bottom in rapid flowing mountain streams, which are impacted in parts of the species' range by sedimentation arising from deforestation and agriculture. The impacts of these threats on the species require research.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Research on Melanoides tuberculata's biology is recommended and potential threats to this species need to be identified.

Citation: Madhyastha, A. 2012. Melanoides tuberculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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