|Scope: Global, Europe & Mediterranean|
|Scientific Name:||Belgrandia torifera Schütt, 1961|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii); D2 ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bilandzija, H. & Jalzic, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Seddon, M., García, N. & Nichols, C.|
Belgrandia torifera is assessed as Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii);D2), based on its known occurrence in four locations, and threats from water management schemes in Bosnia and Herzegovina capturing the incoming water supply, as well as declining quality of habitat. Although this listing differs from the published listing as Critically Endangered (CR B2ab(iii)) on the Croatian National Red List of the Cave Fauna (currently in press), this is due to updating of the information used for assessment.
|Range Description:||This species is only known from Croatia, where it is found from at least four locations. Schütt (2000) reported that originally, it was only known from the type locality at Stinjevac, near Vrgorac in Dalmatia. Later, Schütt collected the species from material washed out of the Ombla Cave system, as well as Metkovic, on the lakes of Bacine and Glusci.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||At Ombla spring it was very common, to the point where it is the most abundant species within sediment samples.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species has been collected from freshwater springs emerging from cave systems.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilised.|
Low levels of decline in this species have been observed in the habitats. In the 1970s dam construction in Popovo polje (Herzegovina), impacted the water levels which supply the springs from Metkovic to Dubrovnik. In recent years, the area around Metkovic is now a highly productive agricultural region where pesticides are used. In addition there is little sewage management and so these waters pollute the groundwater.
A further future threat to the systems is the threat of three dams being constructed upstream of Metkovic, which will have a major impact taking water from the system, as well as increasing the rate of inflow from sea, causing increased salinity, which could lead to species mortality.
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed as Critically Endangered (CR B2ab(iii)) on the Croatian National Red List of the Cave Fauna (currently in press). This species is on the list of protected species for Croatia (See List of protected species). Some of these sites are planned as part of the Natura 2000 network, but this is not yet implemented. All caves and cave fauna are strictly protected by law in Croatia.|
|Citation:||Bilandzija, H. & Jalzic, B. 2011. Belgrandia torifera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T155614A4808667.Downloaded on 19 August 2018.|
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