|Scientific Name:||Naso vlamingii|
|Species Authority:||(Valenciennes, 1835)|
Naseus vlamingii Valenciennes, 1835
Naso valmingi (Valenciennes, 1835)
Naso vlamigii (Valenciennes, 1835)
Naso vlamingi (Valenciennes, 1835)
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Robertson, R. & Smith-Vaniz, B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Beresford, A., Chenery, A., Collen, B., Ram, M. & Richman, N.|
|Contributor(s):||De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.|
This species is widespread in the Indo-Pacific. There are no major threats known, and there is no current indication of widespread population decline. It is listed as Least Concern. However, continued monitoring and research on this species population is needed given that it is associated with coral reefs and is occasionally harvested for subsistence fisheries and the aquarium trade.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Naso vlamingii is a wide-spread Indo-pacific unicorn fish, distributed from East Africa to French Polynesia and Hawaii, north to southern Japan, and south to the southern Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. In the Eastern Pacific, this species is only found in the Galapagos Islands.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Archipelago); Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Ecuador (Galápagos); Fiji; French Polynesia (Marquesas, Tuamotu); Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan (Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto); Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar (Coco Is.); New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; South Africa; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tonga; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Wake Is.); Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for Naso vlamingii.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Naso vlamingii occurs in deep lagoons and seaward coral reefs. This species is often found forming loose schools along upper regions of deep drop-offs to depths of 50 m. It forms mid-water aggregations off steep coral slopes to feed upon zooplankton during the day.|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||Naso vlamingii is harvested by subsistence fisheries and for the aquarium trade.|
There are no major threats known to this species, however it is harvested by subsistence fisheries and for the aquarium trade. It is associated with coral reefs, a habitat that can be locally degraded by water pollution, human pollution pressures, overfishing, tourism, Crown of Thorns outbreaks and coral bleaching.
Surgeonfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reef while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. The majority of surgeonfishes are exclusively found on coral reef habitat, and of these, approximately 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and degradation of coral reef habitat quality across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of coral reef habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that recruit into areas with live coral cover especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Naso vlamingii. However, the distribution of this species may fall with numerous designated marine protected areas, including Apo Island Marine Reserve in the Philippines. Apo Island marine reserve is a no-take reserve and N. vlamingii biomass is reported to have tripled inside the reserve from 1983 to 2001. Outside the reserve, but close to the reserve boundary, N. vlamingii biomass has increased by a factor of 40 (Russ et al. 2003). Therefore habitat conservation measures, such as the establishment and management of no-take zones and marine protected areas are needed to effectively conserve populations of this species.
Monitoring of this species, its habitat status, harvest levels and threats should be undertaken, to accurately determine the impact of coral reef degradation and fisheries on the population of N. vlamingii in the future. Research should also be conducted on species specific conservation measures for N. vlamingii, to try and reduce further negative impact on the population of this species.
|Citation:||Dominici-Arosemena, A., Molina, H., Robertson, R. & Smith-Vaniz, B. 2012. Naso vlamingii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T155120A17758523.Downloaded on 30 September 2016.|
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