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Eopsetta jordani

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PLEURONECTIFORMES PLEURONECTIDAE

Scientific Name: Eopsetta jordani
Species Authority: (Lockington, 1879)
Common Name(s):
English Petrale Sole, Brill
French Charlottin Pétrale, Carlottin Pétrale
Spanish Limanda Petrale, Platija Petrale
Synonym(s):
Eopsetia jordani (Lockington, 1879)
Hippoglossoides jordani (Lockington, 1879)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Munroe, T.A. & Nielsen, J.G.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.
Justification:
Eopsetta jordani has been assessed as Least Concern. Despite harvesting by the commercial fishing industry and natural fluctuations in population numbers, there is no evidence to suggest that this species qualifies for a threat category. At present the stocks are in recovery from some record low levels of abundance. Continued monitoring of the population numbers and harvest levels of this species is needed to ensure that current measures to aid stock recovery are sufficient to rebuild the population of this species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found from the Aleutian Islands and the Bering Sea coast of Alaska to Islas Los Coronados, northern Baja California, Mexico.
Countries:
Native:
Canada (British Columbia); Mexico (Baja California); United States (Alaska, Aleutian Is., California, Oregon, Washington)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northeast; Pacific – northwest
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Ten separate breeding stocks have been identified for this species, however mixing of the stocks can occur outside of the spawning season. The stocks in British Columbia were considered to be at low levels by the late 20th century (Fargo and Kronlund 1997). Consequently, annual landings were capped at 479 tonnes (t) in 1997, limiting trawl fishers to incidental harvests only. The proportion of small sized individuals entering the fishery had increased over the period of 1998-2002 (Starr and Fargo 2004). Starr and Fargo (2004) found that the population has been increasing in abundance in recent years and current stock status seems to be at or above the level of maximum yield. Recently an increase of by-catch rates of this species have been recorded by fishermen.

In the USA, this species is not considered to be overfished (Lai et al. 2005). Stocks in the areas between  Vancouver and Columbia (Northern region) and areas south of Columbia (Southern region), reached historical lows in 1992 and 1986 respectively (Lai et al. 2005). However, regional populations of this species can experience periods of low levels of abundance due to adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, stocks in both regions have increased rapidly in recent years (Lai et al. 2005). In 2005, the estimated spawning biomass of this species was 4960 t for the Northern region and 4667 t for the Southern region.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Adults inhabits sandy and muddy  substrates at depths of 80 to 550 m on the continental shelf and slope. As juveniles, the diet consists of small invertebrates, while the adults feed on fishes including herring and small pollock, shrimp and crabs. Spawning occurs during November to March, depending on the particular spawning ground. Females spawn once a year and fecundity is related to fish size. This species has a pelagic larval stage (J.G. Nielsen pers. comm. 2009).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Eopsetta jordani is a commercially important species and has been harvested throughout its range since the 19th century.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is an important commercial food fish, and has been fished throughout its range since the 19th century by bottom trawlers. A substantial portion of the annual harvest is taken from spawning grounds during winter months (November to February). Catches for the USA ranged from approximately 1,400-2,600 t over the period 1981-2004. In Canada, annual landings were capped at 479 t in 1997, limiting trawl fishers to incidental harvests only.

Stocks off both the USA and Canada are said to have increased in recent years (Starr and Fargo 2004; Lai et al. 2005). Recently an increase of by-catch rates of this species have been recorded by fishermen off British Columbia (Starr and Fargo 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Harvesting for this species is carried out under stock management regulations. These regulations are applicable throughout much of this species range. In British Columbia, trawls have been limited to incidental catches only, due to low stock levels.

Monitoring of the population trends of this species is needed.

Citation: Munroe, T.A. & Nielsen, J.G. 2010. Eopsetta jordani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.
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