Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacentridae

Scientific Name: Amphiprion sandaracinos
Species Authority: Allen, 1972
Common Name(s):
English Orange Anemonefish, Eastern Skunk Anemonefish, Golden Anemonefish, Yellow Clownfish, Yellow skunk clownfish

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Curtis-Quick, J.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Amphiprion sandaracinos has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is relatively common throughout its range without any appreciable decline over the last 30 - 40years. Current threats are of a localised nature only.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Amphiprion sandaracinos is distributed from Christmas Island and Western Australia to Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia, the Philippines, Palau and northwards to the Ryukyu Islands.
Countries occurrence:
Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia); Christmas Island; Fiji; Indonesia; Japan (Nansei-shoto); Micronesia, Federated States of ; New Caledonia; Norfolk Island; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Vanuatu
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Lower depth limit (metres): 20
Upper depth limit (metres): 3
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Amphiprion sandaracinos is relatively common throughout its range (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009). This species is commensal with sea anemones, usually one adult pair and several juveniles per anemone (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The anemonefish Amphiprion sandaracinos has a depth range of 3 - 20 m and is found in lagoons and outer coral reefs. It is most commonly associated with the host anemone species' Stichodactyla mertensii and less frequently with Heteractis crispa (Fautin and Allen 1992). This species is a protandrous hermaphrodite (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009). This species is monogamous (G. Allen pers. comm. 2009).
Systems: Marine
Generation Length (years): 1-2

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Amphiprion sandaracinos is bred in captivity, but may occasionally be harvested from the wild for the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Amphiprion sandaracinos is commercially harvested for the aquarium trade, and it is caught with hand nets (FAO 2001). The anemone in which this species resides, is also commercially harvested for the aquarium trade.

In areas of its range it is threatened by habitat degradation due to eutrophication, destructive fishing practices, tourism, coral bleaching, coastal development and water pollution.

The threats detailed are mainly of a localised nature and do not pose a significant threat to the global population of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Amphiprion sandaracinos has been bred in captivity. The distribution of this species may fall within numerous marine protected areas including the Christmas Island National Park.

Citation: Curtis-Quick, J. 2010. Amphiprion sandaracinos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T154812A4639767. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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