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Scarus prasiognathos

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES LABRIDAE

Scientific Name: Scarus prasiognathos
Species Authority: Valenciennes, 1840
Common Name(s):
English Singapore Parrotfish, Singapore Parrotfish, Green-face Parrotfish, Greenthroat Parrotfish, Ocean Parrotfish, Blue-faced Parrotfish, Dusky Parrotfish
French Perroquet, Perroquet à Bec Vert, Perroquet Étaubone, Perroquet Océan, Poisson-perroquet à Menton Bleu
Spanish Loro Etobón
Synonym(s):
Callyodon janthochir (Bleeker, 1853)
Callyodon singaporensis (Bleeker, 1852)
Pseudoscarus janthochir (Bleeker, 1853)
Pseudoscarus singaporensis (Bleeker, 1852)
Scarus chlorodon Jenyns, 1842
Scarus janthochir Bleeker, 1853
Scarus prasiognathus Valenciennes, 1840
Scarus singaporensis Bleeker, 1852

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2009-02-05
Assessor(s): Allen, G.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, HT, Lutz, M.L., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J., Livingston, F. & Raynal, M.
Justification:
Scarus prasiognathos has been assessed as Least Concern. This is a widespread and relatively common species. This species is harvested by artisinal fisheries as a food source throughout most of its range, but it is thought not to represent a major threat. Due to the size of this species, it is likely to be taken in other fisheries, as by-catch. Monitoring of the extent of these threats is therefore needed.
History:
2010 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Scarus prasiognathos is distributed eastwards from the Maldive Islands through Indonesia to New Ireland in Papua New Guinea, and north to the Ryukyu Islands, including Palau and Micronesia. This species is possibly replaced by Scarus falcipinnis in the western Indian Ocean (Randall and Chout 1980). Other Indian Ocean localities include Cocos-Keeling Islands, Christmas Island and western Australia (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2009).
Countries:
Native:
Australia; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; India; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Maldives; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Seychelles; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Scarus prasiognathos is relatively common in shallow regions of seaward and leeward reefs (FAO 2001b). It often occurs in schools containing more than 100 individuals (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2009).
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Scarus prasiognathos is associated with the outer slope of coral reefs but will enter shallow water in protected areas such as lagoons. This species is often found in large schools, and grazes on benthic algae. It is commonly found at a depth range of 1 - 15 m.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Scarus prasiognathos is harvested throughout most of its range, as a food source. It is harvested using artisinal fishing gear such as nets and traps.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Scarus prasiognathos is harvested throughout most of its range, as a food source. It is harvested using artisinal fishing gear such as nets and traps. This is not thought to be a major threat. Due to the size of this species, it is likely to be taken in other fisheries, as by-catch.

Due to this species association with coral reef habitats it is likely to be undergoing declines due to threats on its habitat including destructive fishing practices, coral bleaching, Crown of Thorns starfish invasions, coastal development, pollution, and tourism. However these are localised threats and not considered a major threat to this wide-ranging species.

Parrotfishes show varying degrees of habitat preference and utilization of coral reef habitats, with some species spending the majority of their life stages on coral reefs, while others primarily utilize seagrass beds, mangroves, algal beds, and /or rocky reefs. Although the majority of the parrotfishes occur in mixed habitat (primarily inhabiting seagrass beds, mangroves, and rocky reefs) approximately 78% of these mixed habitat species are experiencing greater than 30% loss of coral reef area and habitat quality across their distributions. Of those species that occur exclusively in coral reef habitat, more than 80% are experiencing a greater than 30% of coral reef loss and degradation across their distributions. However, more research is needed to understand the long-term effects of habitat loss and degradation on these species populations. Widespread coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for species that depend on live coral reefs for food and shelter especially as studies have shown that protection of pristine habitats facilitate the persistence of adult populations in species that have spatially separated adult and juvenile habitats. Furthermore, coral reef loss and declining habitat conditions are particularly worrying for some corallivorous excavating parrotfishes that play major roles in reef dynamics and sedimentation (Comeros-Raynal et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Scarus prasiognathos, however its distribution coincides with a number of  marine protected areas.

Citation: Allen, G. 2012. Scarus prasiognathos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 August 2014.
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