|Scientific Name:||Cephalocereus senilis (Haw.) Pfeiff.|
Cactus senilis Haw.
|Taxonomic Notes:||This group of columnar cacti have a complicated taxonomy and further work is needed to better delimit the genus and the species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Guadalupe Martínez, J., Sánchez , E. & Bárcenas Luna, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.|
Cephalocereus senilis is listed as Endangered under criterion B1ab(iii,v) due to a limited range (extent of occurrence is approximately 2,170 km2), occurs at one single location based on the threat related to illegal overcollecting across the range, and due to ongoing declines in habitat quality. Overcollection of juveniles is also an ongoing threat and likely causing an imbalance in age distributions of subpopulations.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Mexico, where it is distributed only in the states of Hidalgo and Veracruz (Hunt et al. 2006).|
Native:Mexico (Hidalgo, Veracruz)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is locally abundant, but there is a continuing decline in mature individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is one of the dominant elements of the xerophile scrub where it grows (Reyes-Santiago et al. 2003). The house finch eats the fruits/seed in June, July and November (Mendiola González and Ortiz-Pulido 2006). It is restricted to calcareous canyons within xerophile vegetation.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||This is one of the most commonly used succulent species for ornamental purposes. It is removed from the wild and cultivated (Casas and Barbera 2002). There is significant illegal trade and overcollection of juveniles, resulting in age structure and demographic changes in populations.|
|Major Threat(s):||Juveniles are illegally overcollected for trade as ornamental plants. The species may be at risk from pastoral agriculture (Mendiola González and Ortiz-Pulido 2006). Attempts have been made to transport this species across the Mexican-US border (Robbins and Bárcenas Luna 2003). The cephalia of this species is cut to obtain fruits and seeds (E. Sánchez pers. comm. 2010).|
The species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under the category “threatened” (A; SEMARNAT 2010). A rural nursery in Mixquiahuala, Hidalgo (and elsewhere) is propagating cacti (including Cephalocereus senilis) for commercial and conservation purposes. An environmental education program was established for the conservation of regional flora through courses and workshops provided by the Mexican Cactus and Succulent Society in Hidalgo (Reyes Santiago et al. 2003). The Botanical Gardens of Querétaro are developing an in vitro germination procedure, with which they obtain proliferation of 5x/4 weeks and 100% soil adaptation (E. Sánchez pers. com. 2010).
|Citation:||Guadalupe Martínez, J., Sánchez , E. & Bárcenas Luna, R. 2013. Cephalocereus senilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T152158A604029.Downloaded on 22 January 2018.|
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