|Scientific Name:||Nycticeius humeralis|
|Species Authority:||(Rafinesque, 1818)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Does not include cubanus; see Hall (1981), but also see Varona (1974).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Ticul Alvarez Castaneda, S.|
|Reviewer/s:||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern in because of its wide distribution, occurrence in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
|Range Description:||Northern Veracruz (Mexico) to Nebraska, the Great Lakes, and Pennsylvania, south to Florida and the Gulf coast (USA) (Simmons 2005).|
Native:Mexico; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The evening bat lives in eastern deciduous forests, from the East Coast west to eastern Nebraska and south through East Texas to northern Mexico. It inhabits elevations from sea level to 300 m. The average life span in the wild is probably about two years, although there are records of some individuals surviving for over five years (Watkins, 1972).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Evening Bat is a forest-dwelling species that roosts in tree crevices and behind loose bark, as well as in buildings. This species rarely enters caves but does participate in swarming activities at some cave entrances in late summer. They historically used tree hollows, but as forests have been cut, many have moved into wooden buildings.
Mating probably occurs in late summer and early fall, with the sperm being stored in the uterus of the female during the winter. Ovulation and fertilization occur in the spring. Females give birth to 1 to 3 pups (usually twins) during June.
Evening bats leave their roost near dusk. Individuals begin flying at a height of 12 to 23 m, but as darkness falls they come much lower to the ground. They have a slow and steady flight. During feeding maneuvers, the tail and wing membranes are used to capture and restrain prey (Linzey and Brecht 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||Evening bats have declined in Indiana, but it appears to be relatively abundant in Missouri and Iowa. Its population trends have not been monitored, and its status is unknown over much of its range. N. humeralis is not listed as a species of special concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, though it is considered endangered in Indiana, the area where it has been best monitored.|
|Conservation Actions:||Avoid habitat loss.|
|Citation:||Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Ticul Alvarez Castaneda, S. 2008. Nycticeius humeralis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.|
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