|Scientific Name:||Pteronotropis welaka|
|Species Authority:||(Evermann & Kendall, 1898)|
Notropis welaka Evermann & Kendall, 1898
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/s:||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its area of occupancy is unknown but may be less than 2,000 sq km, number of locations exceeds 10 but distribution appears to be severely fragmented, and habitat quantity and quality, and species' distribution and abundance, are subject to ongoing declines.
|Range Description:||This species' range includes Gulf Coast drainages, mostly below the Fall Line, from Pearl River, Louisiana and Mississippi, to Apalachicola River, Florida and Georgia; and St. Johns River drainage, Florida (Page and Burr 2011). This species is apparently absent from the Escatawpa River system and from the Perdido River in Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Spotty distribution in the Chipola, Choctawhatchee, Yellow, Escambia, Alabama, Cahaba, and Tombigbee river systems (Boschung and Mayden 2004, Smith et al. 2008). Overall, the species occurs primarily in small, localized populations, and its distribution appears to be severely fragmented (as defined by IUCN).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is represented by a fairly large number of occurrences (subpopulations) and locations (as defined by IUCN). Boschung and Mayden (2004) mapped 25 collection sites in Alabama. Smith et al. (2008) listed 25 historical collection sites in Alabama, and in 2007 they collected Bluenose Shiners in seven of these sites. Ross (2001) mapped approximately 30 collection sites in Mississippi. Gilbert (in Lee et al. 1980) mapped at least 18 collection sites in Florida.
Total adult population size is unknown. This species is relatively difficult to collect, so it may be more common than available information indicates.
Populations have been lost, but the overall degree of decline is uncertain. Ross (2001) noted that several local populations in Mississippi had disappeared within the last decade.
Preliminary data suggest that this species is much rarer in the western panhandle of Florida than originally presumed. It has apparently declined in the upper St. Johns River (based on multiple collections at known sites) (Hipes et al. 2001).
Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain, but distribution and abundance probably are slowly declining. Boschung and Mayden (2004) noted the "ever decreasing" habitat in Alabama.
This species may be abundant at a location only to disappear for years at a time (Hipes et al. 2001).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes deep, slow-moving, coastal creeks and small to medium rivers of varying clarity and usually with silty bottoms, often heavily choked with brush and vegetation (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). These shiners seem to prefer deep pools and backwaters (often 1–2 m) to more shallow areas.|
The somewhat fragmented distribution makes local populations vulnerable to catastrophic events (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Removal of aquatic vegetation in small headwater streams where small, isolated populations occur can have devastating effects on these populations (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
Ross (2001) noted that population losses have occurred where streamside vegetation has been removed, or where agricultural or urban development results in stream sedimentation. The shiners' reliance on deep pools of small headwater streams makes them particularly sensitive to such localized impacts (Ross 2001). Population are susceptible to depletion by excessive collection by aquarists (Ross 2001).
This species was regarded as vulnerable by Warren et al. (2000) and Jelks et al. (2008), based on present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of habitat or range,
|Conservation Actions:||The main conservation need is habitat protection.|
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Pteronotropis welaka. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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