|Scientific Name:||Mycteroperca rubra|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch, 1793)|
Epinephelus ruber Bloch, 1793
|Taxonomic Notes:||It has been misidentified in Brazil as M. acutirostris, which occurs in the Western Atlantic, as well as M. fusca in Eastern Atlantic Islands.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rocha, L., Ferreira, B., Choat, J.H., Craig, M.T., Sadovy, Y. & Bertoncini, A.A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Mycteroperca rubra is listed as a species of Least Concern since it is very widespread with a considerable depth range and not specifically targeted by any fishery because of its rarity. The species is not currently considered to be in significant decline.
|Range Description:||Mycteroperca rubra is an eastern Atlantic species that occurs throughout the Mediterranean from Portugal to southern Angola; there are some reports from islands that require confirmation. Specimens from Madeira and the Azores (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), and Cape Verde have been examined by Heemstra (1991) and are identified to be Mycteroperca fusca. The species is replaced by Mycteroperca acutirostris in the western Atlantic. First recorded occurrence in the Adriatic Sea (Glamuzina et al. 2002).|
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Benin; Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Cyprus; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Malta; Mauritania; Morocco; Nigeria; Portugal; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Spain; Syrian Arab Republic; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Western Sahara
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Mycteroperca rubra is a widespread, but generally uncommon species. It does appear commonly along the coast of Senegal (Seret 1981), but is rare in Tunisia (Bouain et al. 1983).
Siau and Bouain (1983) report that fewer than two specimens occur in markets at Sfax (Tunisia) annually.
Follow the link below for Table 1: sighting frequency of M. rubra in tropical western Atlantic (REEF data).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Mycteroperca rubra is a demersal species that occurs over rocky and sandy bottoms from 15 to 200 m (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Juveniles were found during construction of a new wharf in Catania harbor (Battiato 1983).
Mycteroperca rubra feeds on mollusks (presumably cephalopods) and small fishes (Diatta et al. 2003, Freitas 1982).
Sex reversal for mottled grouper occurs at nine years old, 53 cm TL (Siau and Bouain 1994).
Age and growth
Siau and Bouain (1993) indicated that M. rubra began spawning at the end of spring in the Mediterranean, with sexual maturation and size and age of about 27 to 32 cm (TL) and 4 to 5 years.
|Major Threat(s):||Mycteroperca rubra is found in fisheries throughout its range, but is not commonly captured due to its rarity.|
|Conservation Actions:||Mycteroperca rubra is presume to occur in several protected areas. In Turkey, there is a 30 cm minimum legal size.|
|Citation:||Rocha, L., Ferreira, B., Choat, J.H., Craig, M.T., Sadovy, Y. & Bertoncini, A.A. 2008. Mycteroperca rubra. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 October 2014.|
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