Mungotictis decemlineata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Eupleridae

Scientific Name: Mungotictis decemlineata
Species Authority: (A. Grandidier, 1867)
Common Name(s):
English Bokiboky, Malagasy Narrow-striped Mongoose, Narrow-striped Mongoose
Mungotictis lineata Pocock, 1915
Mungotictis substriatus Pocock, 1915
Mungotictis vittatus Gray, 1848
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies are accepted: M. d. decemlineata, in the northern range of the species, and M. d. lineata, formerly known only from the holotype at the southern limit of the range, but since recorded in the Manombo River valley (Hawkins et al. 2000, Goodman et al. 2005). Given the differences in distribution, pelage and ecology between M. d. lineata and the nominate (Hawkins et al. 2000, Goodman et al. 2005), it would be reasonable to treat these forms as different species (Goodman 2013), although a formal proposal for such treatment has not yet been made.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A3cde+4cde ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-03-02
Assessor(s): Hawkins, F.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W.
Contributor(s): Woolaver, L., Jenkins, R.K.B. & Jones, J.P.G.
The Bokiboky is listed as Endangered because it is likely that over the course of the next three generations (taken as 18 years), the population will drop by more than 50% (and possibly much more) mainly because of the breakdown of governance since the coup d'etat in 2009, which has led to widespread habitat loss (this has tripled since 2003-2006 in the core area of habitat), and habitat degradation, hunting, persecution, and the effects of non-native carnivores.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the dry deciduous forests of the central and southern Menabe regions of western Madagascar from sea level to about 125 m asl. It is found between the Tsiribihina River in the north to south of the Manombo River (Razafimanantsoa 2003, Goodman et al. 2005). The precise southern limits of the nominate subspecies' range remain unclear (Woolaver et al. 2006), but it does not extend south of the large Mangoky river, a significant biogeographical boundary. Mungotictis decemlineata lineata has recently been rediscovered south of this river (Goodman et al. 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 125
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The Bokiboky can be locally common. In central Menabe, densities range from 0.25 to 2.9 individuals/ha (Rabeantoandro 1997, Razafimanantsoa 2003). From live-trapping and village surveys, Woolaver et al. (2004, 2006) found M. d. decemlineata to be distributed throughout the largest area of connected forest in central Menabe and most of the larger forest fragments in southern Menabe; these authors estimated a minimum of 2,000–3,400 adults in central Menabe and 6,400–8,650 adults in southern Menabe. The species seems to occur at much lower densities between the Mangoky and Fiherenana Rivers, in the range of M. d. lineata.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a diurnal, part-ground-dwelling, part-arboreal species found in dry deciduous forest. During the night, animals sleep in burrows, or holes in both fallen and standing trees and in similar shelters. It is usually found in family groups of 6-8. The gestation period is between 74 and 106 days after which a single young is born (Razafimanantsoa 2003).
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 5.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Bokiboky is threatened by conversion of its forest habitat to cultivated land and pasture, selective logging, and by incidental mortality caused by hunting dogs (Razafimanantsoa 2003). Feral dogs are known predators of this species.

In western Madagascar, Zinner et al. (2014) showed that for central Menabe, one of the most important centres of distribution of Bokiboky, deforestation rates of 0.78 km²/yr during 2003-2006 increased to 1.09 km²/yr in 2006-2008, and to 2.55 km²/yr by 2008-2010. There is ample evidence that the recent trend has continued in 2010-2104, with in addition increased illegal logging and hunting in the core forest areas, which will undoubtedly negatively impact populations of all native carnivores, especially through the increased presence of dogs.

The recently rediscovered southern population of M. d. lineata in the Mikea forests has an extremely low population density (Goodman et al. 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in the Central Menabe provisional protected area, Kirindy Mitea National Park, and Andranomena Special Reserve (at extremely low densities).

Citation: Hawkins, F. 2015. Mungotictis decemlineata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T13923A45199764. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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