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Lepilemur sahamalazensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES LEPILEMURIDAE

Scientific Name: Lepilemur sahamalazensis
Species Authority: Andriaholinirina, Fausser, Roos, Rabarivola, Ravoarimanana, Zinner, Thalmann, Ganzhorn, Meier, Hilgartner, Walter, Zaramody, Langer, Hahn, Zimmermann., Radespiel, Craul, Tomiuk, Tattersall & Rumpler, 2006
Common Name(s):
English Sahamalaza Peninsula Sportive Lemur, Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur
French Lépilémur De Sahamalaza
Taxonomic Notes: Zinner et al. (2007) examined conflicting results in the genetic analysis of sportive lemurs in northwestern Madagascar, those within the range of what once was considered to be Lepilemur dorsalis. Since the type localities of L. dorsalis Gray, 1871 and L. grandidieri Forsyth Major, 1894, were both “Northwest Madagascar”, the proper name of one or two of the new species from the region (sahamalazensis, grewcocki, mittermeieri, tymlerachsoni) could be either of these two. The true "dorsalis", as such, had not been identified, and no attempt has been made to identify grandidieri, formerly a junior synonym of dorsalis. Genetic analysis of the holotypes of dorsalis and grandidieri is needed to resolve this. Zinner et al. (2007) indicated, therefore, that tymerlachsoni and/or mittermeieri might be junior synonyms.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4cd; B2ab(i,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Kerhoas, D.
Justification:

This species is listed as Critically Endangered as it has been observed to have undergone a population reduction of ≥80% over the past 21 years (three generations, assuming a generation length of 7 years) due primarily to continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat, and exploitation through unsustainable levels of hunting. This cause has not ceased, and will to a large extent not be easily reversible. A future population reduction of ≥80% over a 21 year period is also suspected due to the same cause.

Furthermore, the area of occupancy of L. sahamalazensis covers less than 10 km2. This geographic range is severely fragmented and undergoing continuing decline in extent of occurrence, area of occupancy and in quality of habitat of the remaining areas. The number of subpopulations and mature individuals is also known to be in decline. 

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Restricted to the Sahamalaza Peninsula and adjacent mainland forests in coastal northwestern Madagascar. The precise range of this species is not known, but inferring from the biogeography of this area of Madagascar and from the distribution of the sympatric Eulemur flavifrons, the northern boundary of the range is likely to be the Andranomalaza (Maetsamalaza) River, the southern boundary the Maevarano River, and the eastern boundary the Sandrakota River (Mittermeier et al. 2010). While the extent of occurrence (EOO) is estimated to be lesser than 1,425 km2, the area of occupancy (AOO) is highly restricted to less than 10 km2.
Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Olivieri et al. (2005) recorded an encounter rate of 4.17 individuals/km2 in the forest of Ankarafa. This high encounter rate could be due to recent loss of habitat, forcing all animals to concentrate in the few remaining forest fragments. Ruperti (2007) recorded a mean density of 280 individuals km2 in Ankarafa and extrapolated this to the estimated total extent of suitable habitat within the Sahamalaza-Iles Radama National Park, which yielded a total population size of 3,000 individuals. There are additional populations outside the protected area on the mainland, but hunting pressure is extremely high (Andrianjakarivelo 2004). Population numbers are in decline due to habitat loss.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The Sahamalaza Peninsula is part of a transition zone between the Sambirano region in the north and the western dry deciduous forest region in the south. The species inhabits both primary and mature secondary forests. It seems to be dependent on large and tall trees, and on a sufficient supply of tree holes in one particular tree species (Bridelia pervilleana) during the dry season, and tangled vegetation, particularly in the tree Sorindeia madagascariensis, in the rainy season, both of which are used as day sleeping sites (Mittermeier et al. 2010).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is hunted at increasingly high rates by the local human population since the onset of the political crisis in Madagascar in 2009, due to an almost complete lack of law enforcement. The level of hunting is likely to be unsustainable.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although some of the known distribution is within a protected area, forest clearing for agriculture, and timber-cutting for charcoal and construction continue at high rates, especially since the onset of the political crisis in Madagascar in 2009. The species is also subject to increasing levels of hunting.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on CITES Appendix I. The species is present in the Sahamalaza–Iles Radama National Park (Aire Protégée Terrestre, Marine et Côtière) which is part of the country's protected area network managed through Madagascar National Parks (MNP). The Sahamalaza Peninsula is also a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (declared in 2001). The Association Européenne pour l'Etude et la Conservation des Lémuriens (AEECL), together with MNP and the local communities, is carrying out a community-based natural resource management programme to ensure a better protection of the very few remaining forest fragments in the park (Schwitzer et al. 2006). Further work is needed to clarify the exact distribution and taxonomic limits of the recently described Lepilemur species.

Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Lepilemur sahamalazensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 July 2014.
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