||This species was accidentally described in a magazine article (Binh Chau 1997), based on material collected by Le Trong Trai from the Pu Hoat (mountain) region, in Hanh Dich Village, Hanh Dich Commune, Que Phong District, Nghe An Province, Viet Nam. The original material collected in October 1997 consisted of a single trophy frontlet with antlers (Le Trong Trai pers. comm. to R.J. Timmins pers. comm. 2008). Other specimens of small muntjacs were subsequently collected in the same area by Le Trong Trai and Do Tuoc, consisting of further trophy frontlets, tails and two nearly complete specimens (Le Trong Trai and Do Tuoc pers. comm. to R.J. Timmins pers. comm. 2008). A sample of tissue (reportedly from the initial trophy) was sent to P. Arctander (Le Trong Trai pers. comm. to R.J. Timmins pers. comm. 2008), and this appears to be basis for the claim made by P.M. Giao et al. (1998) of a new undescribed species of muntjac in Viet Nam. However, G. Amato (pers. comm. to R.J. Timmins 1998) was sent a partial sequence by P. Arctander, which he assumes was the sequence used as the basis for the latter claim of P.M. Giao et al. (1998). This sequence was intraspecifically comparable to that of M. rooseveltorum. If this sequence did in fact come from Le Trong Trai's material, specifically from the holotype, and bearing in mind that two species might have similar mtDNA (see Ballard and Whitlock 2004), M. puhoatensis may therefore be a junior subjective synonym of M. rooseveltorum. The tails do not belong to M. vaginalis and the trophies and two near-complete specimens correspond with the M. rooseveltorum complex (which includes also M. truongsonensis and M. putaoensis). Further morphological determination is not possible, because application of the name M. puhoatensis. can only be determined by reference to the holotype, which lacks morphological features for determination within the M. rooseveltorum species-complex, the other material from around the type locality cannot be assumed necessarily to come from the same species as the holotype because species within the M. rooseveltorum complex appear to be sympatric in parts of Lao PDR and Viet Nam (see M. rooseveltorum Red List account). Conservative reasoning suggests taking M. puhoatensis as synonymous with either M. rooseveltorum or M. truongsonensis (which was described a few weeks earlier) until otherwise proven different. Because it is not possible to determine with which of those it should be aligned, it is here kept distinct. See the M. rooseveltorum Red List account for a fuller description of taxonomic issues in this species complex. Le et al. (2014a) reported M. rooseveltorum from the Pu Hoat and Xuan Lien Nature Reserves of Vietnam on the basis of the 16s mitochondrial gene, analysed from four specimens, the paper also claimed to have confirmed the identification on the basis of other mitochondrial genes and nuclear genes, but these apparently have never been determined for the M. rooseveltorum holotype, and furthermore the paper presents no data to support the claim that nuclear genes provide taxonomic resolution of the sampled specimens’ identities. Le et al. (2014 b) report nine cytochrome b sequences from samples collected in Xuan Lien NR as analogous to M. rooseveltorum. Neither paper lists actual details of the sources of their sequences, and the sample numbers given in each paper follow different formats, leaving it uncertain as to whether some of the samples are common to both studies. The reported locality of the Pu Hoat samples however is close to if not the same as the type locality of M. puhoatensis, a species undiagnosable at present because the type material is fragmentary, lacking any known diagnostic features, and has also never been genetically analysed with certainty (Minh Le Duc pers. comm. 2015, R.J. Timmins pers. comm. 2015). Two relatively complete muntjac specimens from the M. rooseveltorum species-complex from the Pu Hoat region seen by R.J. Timmins (pers. comm. 2015) had several morphological characteristics at variance with the holotype of M. rooseveltorum suggesting that the identification of muntjac specimens from the Pu Hoat region should be taken with care, until identification can be corroborated by additional evidence including morphology and nuclear DNA (R.J. Timmins pers. comm. 2015). Several popular media articles that reported the findings of Le et al. (2014) also included camera-trap photographs from Xuan Lien Nature Reserve purported to show M. rooseveltorum, however the muntjacs visible in these photographs were either certainly identifiable as M. vaginalis or unidentifiable to species as they lacked visible diagnostic characteristics.