Cebus flavius


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Cebus flavius
Species Authority: (Schreber, 1774)
Common Name(s):
English Blonde Capuchin, Marcgrave's Capuchin Monkey
Taxonomic Notes: Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.

Cebus queirozi Pontes and Malta, 2006 in Pontes, Malta and Asfora, 2006, is evidently a junior synonym, or, as argued by Oliveira and Langguth (2006), unavailable for lack of a registered type specimen.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): de Oliveira, M.M., Boubli, J.-P. & Kierulff, M.C.M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species listed as Critically Endangered due to an extremely small population size and continuing decline. The estimated total population is 180 individuals, all of which are extremely fragmented (approximately 24 subpopulations) and averaging approximately 15 individuals.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The coastal region of north-east Brazil in the states of Alagoas, Paraíba and Pernambuco (Oliveira and Langguth 2006; Pontes et al. 2006). Cebus libidinosus occurs inland (see Oliveira and Langguth 2006).
Brazil (Alagoas, Paraíba, Pernambuco)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The remaining populations of this species are all extremely fragmented (approximately 24 subpopulations) each averaging approximately 15 total individuals. The estimated total remaining mature populations size is 180 individuals (M. M. de Oliveira, unpubl.).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Lowland coastal rain forest and Montrichiardia linina swamp in north-east Brazil (Pontes et al. 2006), secondary forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forest, canopy at about 20 m and emergents about 25 m. Capuchin monkeys are arboreal quadrepeds, they are typically found in the lower to mid-canopy and understorey (Freese and Oppenheimer 1981; Fragaszy et al. 2004; Jack 2007).

Capuchin monkeys are frugivores-insectivores, including a wide variety of fruits, seeds and arthropods, frogs, nestlings and even small mammals, supplemented by stems, flowers and leaves. They are extractive, manipulative foragers. Typical group size for tufted capuchins is about 18 individuals, with numbers of females exceeding the numbers of males (adult sex ratio of 0.85). Pontes et al. (2006) recorded a group of 18. Males disperse. Both sexes take up linear hierarchies, the top ranking male being dominant to the top ranking female. Subordinate males are often peripheral (Fragaszy et al. 2004).

Adult male HB 36.8 cm, TL 37.8 cm, weight 3.0 kg (Oliveira and Langguth 2006)
Adult male HB 40.0 cm, TL 41 cm, weight 2.9 kg (Pontes et al. 2006)
Adult female HB 35.1 cm, TL 38.4 cm, weight 1.8 kg (Oliveira and Langguth 2006)
Adult female HB 36.1 cm, TL 38.0 cm, weight 2.5 kg (Oliveira and Langguth 2006).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats are hunting (for food and pets), and habitat loss and fragmentation (mainly through coastal development and sugar cane).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species has not been recorded from any protected areas, though several are within range, including Guaribas Biological Reserve (2,714 ha), Barra do Mamanguape EPA (14,640 ha), Manguezais da Foz do rio Mamanguape (Area of Outstanding Ecological Interest; 5,721 ha), and Engenho Gargau RPPN and Mata Estrela RPPN. Surveys over its entire range are needed to establish habitat preferences, area of occupancy, and population numbers.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: de Oliveira, M.M., Boubli, J.-P. & Kierulff, M.C.M. 2008. Cebus flavius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 30 May 2015.
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