Rana holtzi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Ranidae

Scientific Name: Rana holtzi Werner, 1898
Common Name(s):
English Taurus Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6 (27 January 2014). New York, USA. Available at: (Accessed: 27 January 2014).
Taxonomic Notes: Veith et al. (2003) treated Rana holtzi as conspecific with R. macrocnemis. However, we follow Çevik et al. (2006) and Baran et al. (2007) in considering Rana holtzi to be a valid species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Olgun Kurtulu?, Murat Bozdógan, Mehmet ?z, Yakup Kaska, Yusuf Kumluta?, U?ur Kaya, Aziz Avci, Nazan Üzüm, Can Yeniyurt, Ferdi Akarsu
Reviewer(s): Neil Cox and Helen Temple
Listed as Critically Endangered because its Area of Occupancy is less than 10km2 and its Extent of Occurrence is less than 85 km2. All individuals are in a single sub-population, and there is a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals and in the extent and quality of its habitat. Tourism in the area and predation from introduced carp are major sources of decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Bolkar Dagi, in the Taurus Range, southern Turkey. There are records from Karagöl (2,500m asl), the Çiniligöl lakes (2,600m asl) and Eğrigöl (16km southeast of Karagöl - 3,000m asl). Within this small region it is patchily distributed, being absent from apparently suitable habitat, such as Çinili Lake, which is at a slightly higher elevation.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):2500
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Baran (1969) noted that the population at Karagöl was large. Baran et al. (2001) stated that the population size of Rana holtzi had declined approximately 60%-70% in Karagöl because of the introduction of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Kaya et al. (2005) estimated the population size of Rana holtzi in Karagöl to be between 725 and 1,432 individuals based on a mark-recapture study. They also stated that this species is facing a very high risk of decline in its natural habitat.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits high montane lakes with grassy borders and slow-flowing creeks created by snow water. The frogs are also found in meadows close to the water bodies in which they breed. The creeks are surrounded by prairies where domestic sheep graze. Pads formed by grass roots on the creek sides provide a suitable habitat under which the frogs spend the winter. The related species, Rana macrocnemis, occurs at lower elevations in the Bolkar Dagi (it is found at Seviçova at 2,500m asl, below Eğrigöl (3,000m) where R. holtzi occurs).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is endemic to a popular tourist area. A road has recently been completed at the site potentially increasing the number of visitors. It is reported to be declining through overcollection for scientific and possibly other purposes (Olgun 1998; Eken pers. comm.), and the introduction of predatory fishes (including carp) into the lakes in the 1990s, has led to a significant decline in the population. The impact of local fisheries (including dynamite fishing) and overgrazing of surrounding meadows by goats on the species requires further information, but is presumed to be having a negative impact.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It does not occur in any protected areas. The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and is protected by national legislation. The Council of Europe (Anon. 1991) recommended that the introduction of salmonid or other predator fish to the species habitat was strictly forbidden; and that there was a need to carry out a field survey of the species in the whole Taurus Mountains range. Local public awareness programmes have been initiated (Olgun 1998). Captive breeding might be necessary in the future if threats continue.

Citation: Olgun Kurtulu?, Murat Bozdógan, Mehmet ?z, Yakup Kaska, Yusuf Kumluta?, U?ur Kaya, Aziz Avci, Nazan Üzüm, Can Yeniyurt, Ferdi Akarsu. 2009. Rana holtzi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T136089A4230728. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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