|Scientific Name:||Salmo labrax|
|Species Authority:||Pallas, 1814|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Genetic data show that resident trouts from the northern Black Sea basin represent a lineage very different from those of the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Caspian basins, but there is no published morphological comparison. Presently, a single species of Salmo is recognized in the northern Black Sea basin (in addition to the extinct S. schiefermuelleri). A population from upper Vardar (Lipkovska) is tentatively referred to S. labrax; it is superficially distinguished from all Balkan species by its very slightly emarginate caudal. In upper Danube, S. trutta is present and hybrid populations are or might be present in lower Danube, Dniestr, Dniepr and Don.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
Because the species has been impacted by the construction of dams (mostly more than three generations ago), it has now stabilised at a lower level and, therefore, does not qualify for the threatened or Near Threatened category. The anadromous ecotype is very rare in Europe now. Because of dams, most returning adults are unable to reach spawning sites. The resident populations are less impacted by the dams.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
Rivers draining to northern Black Sea. Lipkovska stream in upper Vardar drainage (Macedonia). Anatolian populations have recently been show to be two distinct species, Salmo coruhensis and S. rizeensis, reducing the distribution area of the species.
Native:Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Georgia; Hungary; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
At sea, along coasts at depths of up to 50 m. Migrates to hill streams. Resident part of populations in streams and uppermost reaches with fast current, cold clear water and stone or gravel bottom. Spawns in upper reaches with fast current.
Anadromous, lacustrine and resident ecotypes. Spawns in October-January. Parrs spend 2-4 years in rivers and streams, then smoltify and migrate to sea or mature in freshwater. Spends 2-4 years at sea. Anadromous individuals return to rivers in April-May and again in October-November. Eggs hatch in 6-8 weeks. Parrs and resident adults feed on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Anadromous and large lacustrine individuals feed mainly on fish and large crustaceans. Anadromous individuals feed while in rivers.
|Use and Trade:||It is harvested for human consumption, and for sport fishing.|
|Major Threat(s):||The anadromous ecotype is very rare in Europe. Because of damming, most returning adults are unable to reach spawning sites. The resident populations are less impacted by the dams.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2013. Salmo labrax. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.|
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