|Scientific Name:||Rutilus caspicus|
|Species Authority:||(Yakovlev, 1870)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species which is declining in the Caspian sea due to overexploitation from commercial fisheries. However, it is thought this decline is not at a rate that would qualify for a threatened or Near Threatened category at present.
|Range Description:||Northern and northwestern Caspian Sea. For spawning, enters Volga, Ural, Emba, Terek and Kura drainages. In Volga, migrates through delta and southern zone of Volga-Akhtuba system, only few go as far upstream as Volgograd. In Terek, does not migrate beyond delta.|
Native:Azerbaijan; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Kazakhstan; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Spends most of year in shallow brackish coastal waters. At sea, adults are most abundant at 2.5-4 m depth and 2-4 ‰ salinity during summer. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn.
Semi-anadromous. Lives up to 10 years. Spawns for the first time at 2-5 years. In September, adults moves close to coasts and overwinter in shallow waters from middle of November until ice melts. Spawning migration commences in late March-early April at 1-3°C and peaks at 7-9°C. Spawns in April-May on shallow shores of coastal lakes and flooded areas at 10-17°C. Eggs are sticky, laid among plants. Annual spawner, but some females spawn only every second year. After spawning, adults return to sea where they join groups of immature juveniles, not travelling for long distances, staying in areas with high abundance of prey. Larvae migrate to sea, first passively, then actively. By August, juveniles reach coastal waters. While in river, juveniles feed on plankton (mostly Cladocera) and small benthic animals. At sea, they feed on oligochaetes and chironomid larvae, sometimes algae. At one year, starts to feed on molluscs and large benthic crustaceans. Adults also feed on crustaceans, worms and chironomid larvae.
|Major Threat(s):||The population in the Caspian sea has declined due to overexploitation from commercial fisheries.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Rutilus caspicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.|
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