|Scientific Name:||Stenodus nelma|
|Species Authority:||(Pallas, 1773)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Skopets, M. (IUCN SSC Salmon Specialist Group), & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species, however stocks in European and Siberian rivers are declining due to overfishing and pollution, however not at a rate to qualify the species for a threatened or Near Threatened category.
|Range Description:||Arctic Ocean basin, from Ponoi (Kola Peninsula, White Sea basin) eastward to Anadyr (Siberia), Yukon (Alaska) and Mackenzie (Canada) drainages.|
Native:Canada; China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russian Federation; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Declining in European and Siberian range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
At sea, in pelagic zone with water salinity up to 20‰. Large lowland and piedmont rivers and lakes. Prefers cold water with temperatures below 16°C. Forages and overwinters in lower reaches of large rivers, deltas, estuaries and sea, sometimes rather far from coast. Migrates for spawning in rivers, moving upstream for long distances, up to uppermost reaches in European rivers. Lacustrine populations migrates into tributaries. Spawns over shallows with sand-gravel bottom and 2-3 m depth.
Anadromous or semi-anadromous, resident in some rivers and landlocked in some lakes. Resident and anadromous populations co-occur in some rivers in North America. Anadromous populations spawn for the first time at 600-900 mm SL and 8-16 years, females 2-3 years later than males. Freshwater populations may mature earlier, males at four, females at five years and have shorter life cycle. Usually spawns only 1-2 times during life, rarely three, usually every 2-3 years. Starts migration in early spring just after ice melting, reaches spawning sites by autumn. Spawns in September-October, 80,000-420,000 non-sticky eggs. Adults actively feed after spawning and spend following winter and spring in river, return to lower reaches and sea by next summer. Embryonic development lasts 250-260 days, larvae (12-14 mm SL) appear in May-June. Fry migrates to sea soon after start of active feeding or remain 2-3 years in rivers. Juveniles feed on mysids, insect larvae and fry, become exclusively piscivorous at about 300 mm SL. Active predator feeding on all available fishes. Occasionally hybridises with Coregonus species.
|Major Threat(s):||Locally threatened by overfishing and pollution.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are special fishing regulations in some territories, and in places it is illegal to catch for consumption (M. Skopets, pers. comm.).|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Stenodus nelma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 April 2015.|
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