|Scientific Name:||Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes, 1830)|
Cephalopholis megachir (Richardson, 1846)
Epinephelus gilberti (Richardson, 1842)
Epinephelus hexagonatus (non Forster, 1801)
Epinephelus macrospilos (non Bleeker, 1855)
Epinephelus megachir (Richardson, 1846)
Epinephelus merra (non Bloch, 1793)
Epinephelus quoyans (Valenciennes, 1830)
Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes, 1830)
Perca melanocelidota Gronow, 1854
Serranus alatus Alleyne and Macleay, 1877
Serranus carinatus Alleyne and Macleay, 1877
Serranus gilberti Richardson, 1846
Serranus megachir Richardson 1846
Serranus pardalis Bleeker, 1848
Serranus quoyanus Valenciennes, 1830
|Taxonomic Notes:||See Epinephelus merra assessment. Also, a member of the nine-member reticulated grouper complex that are much confused in the literature.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Liu, M., Russell, B. & Pollard, D.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Epinephelus quoyanus is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution and occurrence in well-managed marine protected areas. However, increased exploitation of this species throughout much of Southeast Asia is cause for concern and close monitoring.
Epinephelus quoyanus is widespread within the Indo-Malay region and occurs from the Andaman Islands to northern New South Wales (29° 47' S) and Western Australia (Shark Bay), north to Japan and Korea.
Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, China, Taiwan Province of China, Philippines, Japan, Korea.
Hawaii introduced E. quoyanus in 1956, but it did not establish.
Native:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Malaysia; Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Epinephelus quoyanus is not observed frequently during underwater surveys. There is no other information on population trends for the species. Epinephelus quoyanus was one of the most common groupers in shallow and inter-tidal, eastern, waters of Hong Kong in the 1960s; however, it is not observed frequently today (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).
In Sabah, Epinephelus quoyanus is lumped together with other groupers and catch trends are decreasing. This situation is inferred in other areas in Southeast Asia.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||General|
Epinephelus quoyanus is a sedentary species of shallow (0 to 50 m), often silty, inshore, waters. Longfin grouper are well camouflaged when lying close to Platygyra coral heads, the polyps of which have a similar size and shape to the spots of the fish (Sadovy and Cornish 2000).
Size, maturity and reproduction
The maximum size is reported to be 40 cm TL (Lau and Li 2000). 50% of female maturity size is about 19 cm SL (i.e., 24 cm TL) (Allen To personal communication).
In Hong Kong, the spawning season is April-May (Sadovy, 1998). E. quoyanus is protogynous hermaphroditic on the basis of gonadal histology (Allen To pers. comm.).
Epinephelus quoyanus feeds on shrimps, worms, small fishes (e.g., Apogonidae and Blenniidae species) and crabs (Connell 1998, Sadovy and Cornish 2000).
Epinephelus quoyanus is of some economic importance in fisheries in Hong Kong and Taiwan (Heemstra and Randall 1993) and can be found in live reef fish food markets in Hong Kong and likely other parts of Southeast Asia. Small juveniles of 2 to 5 cm have been collected in the summer and larger fish are taken by gill nets, hand-line and traps (Sadovy and Cornish 2000, Allen To pers. comm.).
Juveniles are grown-out in cages in small scales in southeast Asia. In Hong Kong markets, >30% of fish sold are immature with price of HK$128 to 180/kg and >85% are caught from local waters (Allen To, pers. comm.).
|Conservation Actions:||Epinephelus quoyanus is protected in marine parks in Hong Kong. It is also protected in marine reserves in Queensland and Western Australia and Northern Territory. Subject to size and bag limits in Queensland.|
|Citation:||Liu, M., Russell, B. & Pollard, D. 2008. Epinephelus quoyanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T132799A3454831.Downloaded on 16 October 2018.|
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