|Scientific Name:||Cephalopholis hemistiktos|
|Species Authority:||(Rüppell, 1830)|
Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell, 1830)
Serranus hemistiktos Ruppell, 1830
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Choat, J.H., Rocha, L., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A. & Craig, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Cephalopholis hemistiktos is listed as Near Threatened on the basis of predicted future decline of close to 30% based on increasing fishing effort in the future. This species is not as heavily fished as larger co-occurring groupers at present, but as these larger species decline and are no longer economically viable to target, it is expected that this species will become more of a focus of the fisheries.
|Range Description:||Cephalopholis hemistiktos has a disjunct distribution. It is known with certainty only from the northern end of the Red Sea, and then occurs on the northern coast of Oman to the Arabian Gulf and coast of Pakistan. And there are recent records from Socotra (Yemen) and mainland Somalia. Records from elsewhere are apparently based on misidentifications of other species.|
Native:Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kuwait; Oman; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – western
|Lower depth limit (metres):||55|
|Upper depth limit (metres):||2|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Records from northern Oman show that Cephalopholis hemistiktos is one of the most abundant species of Cephalopholis recorded, however, abundance in other parts of its range is unknown. The population structure and abundance patterns of this species in Oman are highly variable. C. hemistiktos is abundant in the Gulf of Oman extending north beyond Musandam into the Arabian Gulf. To the south abundance drops sharply and this species is absent from reefs of the Arabian sea south of Ras al Hadd (McIlwain pers comm.).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
In the Red Sea, C. hemistiktos is more often found on patchy open reef areas rather than on well developed coral reefs and occurs at depths ranging from 4 to at least 55 m. In Oman is abundant but patchily distributed on shallow coastal reefs. The greatest abundance is shown in central region (Muscat) with smaller number in the Arabian Gulf. In Oman on rocky reef substrata from 2 to 55 m. Abundant in the upwelling area of the Gulf of Oman despite local fishery.
It is a diurnal, ambush predator feeding throughout the day on fishes (64%, mostly pomacentrids) and crustaceans (36%).
C. hemistiktos is a monogamous species and each pair jointly defends a common territory of up to 62 m² (Shpigel and Fishelson 1991).
|Generation Length (years):||<10years|
The greatest threats to Cephalopholis hemistiktos are habitat loss and overfishing.
The yellowfin hind is not as heavily fished as larger co-occurring groupers at present, but as these larger species decline and are no longer economically viable to target, it is expected that this species will become more of a focus of the fisheries. It is heavily fished by line and trapping on central Oman coast. Weekly sampling in the Muttrah market from March 2004 to March 2005 revealed C. hemistiktos as the most abundant grouper, accounting for 34% of all grouper that were measured (by numbers). During the same time period, sampling the landings at Dibba in Musandam found that C. hemistiktos accounted for 16% of the total grouper landings. Logbooks filled out by Omani traditional fishermen from Barka (35 km north of Muscat) suggests C. hemistiktos accounts for 7.5% of the total catch (all fish species combined) and 42% of grouper species.
Not necessarily targeted in Musandam, but are caught as by-catch in traps that are set around reefs. This species is not targeted or caught by the Industrial trawl fishery which operates in the Arabian Sea where C. hemistiktos does not occur (J. McIlwain pers. comm.).
|Conservation Actions:||Cephalopholis hemistiktos is not protected by area management within its range of occurrence except in the Dyminiyats Islands in the Gulf of Oman. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will be required in the future. There is effort control on number of fisher licenses in Oman.|
|Citation:||Choat, J.H., Rocha, L., Ferreira, B., Bertoncini, A.A. & Craig, M. 2008. Cephalopholis hemistiktos. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T132759A3443404. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T132759A3443404.en . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.|
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