|Scientific Name:||Cephalopholis leopardus|
|Species Authority:||(Lacepède, 1801)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Resembles C. urodeta but can be distinguished by the distinctive dark saddle on caudal peduncle (Myers 1999).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cabanban, A.S., Heemstra, P.C., Samoilys, M. & Kulbicki, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Cephalopholis leopardus is listed Least Concern as because it is widespread (although with variable abundance) and cryptic, and it is found in some well-managed marine parks within its range. The species is an incidental catch in the Live Reef Fish Trade and a non-target species in large-scale commercial fisheries. However, there are no quantitative data on its abundance in fisheries or in the wild from which to establish population trends. The species is reliant on coral reef habitat and is subject to the effects of global warming and habitat loss.
Cephalopholis leopardus is distributed in the Indo-Pacific, ranging from East Africa (but not the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, or South Africa) to the Society Islands (French Polynesia), north to the Ryukyu Islands (Japan), and south to northern Australia. Its range includes most islands of the Indian Ocean and those of the west-central Pacific (Heemstra and Randall 1993). It is also reported from Réunion (Leternour 1996), and is found in the east Andaman Sea (Allen and Stone 2005).
One record from Rodríguez by Heemstra and Randall (1984) could not be verified and is probably erroneous (Heemstra and Randall 1993).
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; China; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Comoros; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Cephalopholis leopardus has variable abundance across its range. It is common in the western Indian Ocean, but uncommon in the Great Barrier Reef and Reunion.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Cephalopholis leopardus is a reef-associated, non-migratory species found at depths of 1 to 40 m. Leopard Hind occur in coral-rich areas of lagoon pinnacles, channels, and outer reef slopes. The species is solitary (Myers 1999) and secretive, usually hiding in caves and crevices in the reefs. Leopard Hind are one of the smallest species of groupers known.
Leopard Hind diet is omnivorous with a diet composed of fish and crustaceans.
The species reproduces late in life and has a low GSI. Leopard Hind seldom form schools and are often territorial. It exhibits low growth after first reproduction and has low mortality; life-span 7 to 12 years (Mellin et al. 2006).
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat to Cephalopholis leopardus is habitat degradation from fish-bombing, sedimentation and eutrophication. It is not a specific target of commercial fisheries, although it is fished for subsistence purposes. The species is not commercially important in Papua New Guinea (Fry et al. 2006) and is recorded in the trap fisheries in Mozambique. It is typically lumped with other serranids in catch records. Leopard Hind are present in the Maldives live food fish trade; no export quota established for this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||Cephalopholis leopardus occurs within marine protected areas within some parts of its range.|
|Citation:||Cabanban, A.S., Heemstra, P.C., Samoilys, M. & Kulbicki, M. 2008. Cephalopholis leopardus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 September 2014.|
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