|Scientific Name:||Cephalopholis miniata|
|Species Authority:||Forsskal 1775|
Cephalopholis boninius Jordan and Thompson, 1914
Cephalopholis formosanus Tanaka, 1911
Cephalopholis maculatus Seale and Bean, 1907
Cephalopholis miniata Forsskal 1775
Cephalopholis miniatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Epinephelus miniatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Perca miniata Forsskal, 1775
Pomacentrus burdi Lacepede, 1802
Serranus cyanostigmoides Bleeker, 1849
Serranus miniatus (Forsskal, 1775)
Serranus perguttatus De Vis, 1884
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Cabanban, A.S., Kulbicki, M., Fennessy, S., Heemstra, P.C. & Yeeting, B.|
|Reviewer/s:||Sadovy, Y. & Moss, K. (Grouper and Wrasse Red List Authority)|
Cephalopholis miniata is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, moderately common in many areas and occurs in a number of marine protected areas, some well-managed. However, degradation of habitat and possible widespread overfishing within its range is cause for concern and additional monitoring.
|Range Description:||Cephalopholis miniata is an Indo-Pacific species recorded from the Red Sea to Durban (South Africa) and eastward to the Line Islands. Its range includes most islands in the Indian and west-central Pacific oceans. The species is absent from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. It also is recorded from the East Andaman Sea, Thailand (Allen and Stone 2005), and India (southwest tip) (Myers distributional database 2006). Misidentified as Cephalopholis cyanostigma from Reuníon (Postel et al. 1963).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Christmas Island; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Israel; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kiribati; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Cephalopholis miniata is common in most coral-rich areas within its range (Myers pers. comm.) and is generally common in the Red Sea (Lieske and Myers 1994) but low in numbers (Fry et al. 2006).
Relative abundance (RA = 0.05) = pooled number of species in all censuses/total number of individuals in all censuses x 100 (Rilov and Benayahu 1998).
Frequency of appearance (Red Sea) (FA=no. of censuses in which the species was found/total number of censuses x 100) = 21.2 (Rilov and Benayahu 1998).
Densities 0.03 indiv/1,000 m² in shallow reef in New Caledonia, but higher abundance 0.8/1,000 m² on bommies (IRD database).
It shows stable abundances in New Caledonia over a ten-year survey period (IRD database). It is common in coral reef marine reserve in South Africa (Chater et al. 1993). The species are not abundant in shallow waters in areas surveyed along the Great Barrier Reef (Pears 2005).
Constitutes 3% of serranid catch in New Caledonia (IRD database) and less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Cephalopholis miniata inhabits clear waters of coral reefs and is more often found in exposed rather than protected reef areas (Fischer et al. 1990). On the Barrier Reef, only found in outer shelf back-reef areas (Newman et al. 1997).
Cephalopholis miniata feeds on fishes (80%, mainly Pseudanthias squamipinnis) and crustaceans.
The species forms haremic groups comprising of a dominant male and two to 12 females; haremic groups occupy territories of up to 475 sq m subdivided into secondary territories and defended by a single female (Shpigel and Fishelson 1991). The species is listed as a protogynous hermaphrodite, but has not been confirmed through histological analysis (Heemstra and Randall, 1993). Sex ratio in New Caledonia 84 females to four males. Males were larger, but immature; females were found mature at 23 cm TL (IRD database).
|Major Threat(s):||Cephalopholis miniata is threatened by both overfishing and habitat degradation (fish-bombing, sedimentation). It is a common species of economic importance to local fisheries and is captured by hook and line, spear and traps. It is a component of the live reef fish trade, but occurs in unknown quantities. No population trend data is available (citation from Annadel-Busing). The species constitutes less than 1% of catch in Pohnpei (Rhodes and Tupper 2007). Declines in catch of serranids from Sabah includes an unknown sub-component of C. miniata (Cabanban and Biusing, submitted to NAGA).|
|Conservation Actions:||Cephalopholis miniata is found in marine protected areas within its range, including the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. No other measures specific to the species.|
|Citation:||Cabanban, A.S., Kulbicki, M., Fennessy, S., Heemstra, P.C. & Yeeting, B. 2008. Cephalopholis miniata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 May 2013.|
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