|Scientific Name:||Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Cook, R., Fernandes, P., Florin, A., Lorance, P. & Nedreaas, K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Needle, C. & Kempf, A.|
European Regional Assessment: LC
Melanogrammus aeglefinus is restricted to the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. Melanogrammus aeglefinus principally occurs at depths of up to 600 metres, but is more abundant at depths between 40 and 300 metres. It is a commercially important species which is harvested throughout its range. Trends in the population were evaluated against Criterion A over a 3-generation timeframe of 10-15 years using Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) estimates, which were available for 7 stocks. Summed SSB fluctuates around a relatively stable mean over the last 10 to 15 years, a time period which likely approximates three generation lengths given the variability in age at first maturity in this species. Therefore, M. aeglefinus is listed as Least Concern. This species is managed to varying degrees throughout its range within the European Assessment Zone. This species is managed to varying degrees throughout its range within the European Assessment Zone.
|Range Description:||Melanogrammus aeglefinus is restricted to the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. In the western North Atlantic, this species is distributed from the Greenland south to Cape May, New Jersey. In the northeastern Atlantic, it is distributed from Svalbard and Barents Sea south to the Bay of Biscay. Melanogrammus aeglefinus principally occurs at depths of up to 600 metres, but is more abundant at depths between 40 and 300 metres (Hedger et al. 2004). Haddock is extending its range northward due to a recent period of increased influx of warm Atlantic seawater to the western coast of Svalbard (Renaud et al. 2011, Cardinale et al. 2012).|
MRN, ZMO and SRF records show this species as being found along western and northern Norway, east to Novaya Zemlya (Cohen et al. 1990).
Native:Belgium; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France (France (mainland)); Germany; Guernsey; Iceland; Ireland; Jersey; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Russian Federation (European Russia); Spain; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – northeast
Haddock in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division IIIa West (Skagerrak) - In 2011, this stock accounted for approximately 40% of the total SSB for all stocks. Bcurrent>Blim; Fcurrent<Fmsy. Fishing mortality has declined since the mid-1980s, corresponding to an increase in SSB of this stock. Biomass information is available from 1963-2012. Biomass was at historical lows in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
Haddock in Subareas I and II (Northeast Arctic) - In 2011, this stock accounted for approximately 40% of the total SSB for all stocks. This stock is considered to be harvested sustainability, and is at full reproductive capacity. Fishing mortality has fluctuated near Fmsy since 1995 (currently, Fcurrent>Fmsy). Bcurrent>Blim. (well managed) Recruitment has been at or above average since 2000. Current SSB (373646 tonnes) is above the average SSB for the time series (141026 tonnes).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is found on soft bottoms at depths ranging from 10 to 600 metres (Albert 1994), however it is typically found from 10 to 200 m at temperatures between 4°C and 10°C. In the North Sea, the greatest Haddock abundances were found between 75 and 125 metres, and abundances were positively related to temperature and salinity (Hedger et al. 2004). Melanogrammus aeglefinus is a migratory species, which undertakes extensive migrations in the Barents Sea and in Iceland, with more restricted movements occurring in the Northwestern Atlantic. Females are typically found in shallow waters, while males are found offshore. The haddock is an omnivorous fish, feeding mainly on small bottom-living organisms including crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, worms and fishes. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens) are major predators of Haddock (ICES Advice 2012). |
Maturation schedules differ between spawning cites east and west of the Greenwich meridian (Wright and Tobin 2013).
Maturation schedules also vary by stock (Wright and Tobin 2013). In the Barents Sea the age of 50% maturity for females is 4 (Devine and Heino 2011). In the North Sea age of 50% maturity is 3 (Morgan et al. 2013). Population trends were examined over a 10-15 year period, which approximates 3 generation lengths in this species.
|Use and Trade:||This is an important fisheries species. It is marketed fresh, chilled as fillets, frozen, smoked and canned. It is also processed into fish-meal and used in animal feeds. It is taken with bottom trawls, seines, longlines, gillnets, and traps (Cohen et al. 1990).|
Melanogrammus aeglefinus is an important commercial fisheries species. It is mainly caught by demersal, and demersal seining. In some areas, high discards are a considerable problem for this species (ICES Advice 2012).
In addition to overexpoitation, M. aeglefinus may be impacted by environmental change/europhication and deterioration of nursing grounds in some areas (2013 HELCOM RedList Assessment).
Melanogrammus aeglefinus is managed by annual Total Allowable Catches (TACs) within specific management areas in the Northeastern Atlantic. However, it is worth noting that there are indications of mismatch between biological and fisheries management units for this species (Reiss et al. 2009). Several specific management plans are in place for Haddock: Haddock in Subarea IV (North Sea) and Division IIIa West (Skagerrak) is managed by the joint EU/Norway Management plan. Management plans are also in place for the East Arctic stock.
In 1996, this species was evaluated at the Global Level, and was assessed as Vulnerable A1d+2d. At the National level, it was evaluated as Endangered on the Swedish IUCN Red List. This species was assessed as Near Threatened in the HELCOM Baltic Sea Assessments in 2013 using Criterion B. Spawning of M. aeglefinus is restricted to the Sound, and therefore this species has very restricted area of occupancy (10 to 500km2) and extent of occurrence (<5000 km2) in the HELCOM region.
The Icelandic Haddock was evaluated as a moderate conservation concern, and is considered a "Good Alternative" by the Seafood Watch program.
|Citation:||Cook, R., Fernandes, P., Florin, A., Lorance, P. & Nedreaas, K. 2015. Melanogrammus aeglefinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T13045A45097487.Downloaded on 21 November 2017.|
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