Anhydrophryne rattrayi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Pyxicephalidae

Scientific Name: Anhydrophryne rattrayi Hewitt, 1919
Common Name(s):
English Hogsback Chirping Frog, Hogsback Frog, Rattray's Forest Frog, Rattray's Frog
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2016. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (31 March 2016). New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-08-11
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG)
Reviewer(s): Angulo, A.
Contributor(s): Channing, A., Rebelo, A., Turner, A.A., de Villiers, A., Becker, F., Harvey, J., Tarrant, J., Measey, J., Tolley, K., Minter, L., du Preez, L., Burger, M., Cunningham, M., Baptista, N., Davies, S., Hopkins, R., Chapeta, Y. & Conradie, W.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rebelo, A., Luedtke, J., Measey, J. & Neam, K.
Listed as Vulnerable, as this species has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 1,185 km2, it is known from three locations, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of habitat. Although this species qualifies as Endangered, it appears to be plentiful where it occur, is not considered to be fragmented and the decline in habitat quality is not thought to be particularly severe.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the Amathole, Katberg and Keiskammahoek Mountains (three threat-defined locations) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It occurs above 950 m asl. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,185 kmand its area of occupancy (AOO) is 422 km2. There is a record from near Patensie (J. Visser pers. obs.), some 200 km southwest of the main range, but the species has not been found in this area since it was discovered in 1961 and needs verification, and thus it has not been included in this assessment.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:422.4Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1884.63
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Number of Locations:3Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):950
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It can be common in suitable places. The population is not thought to be severely fragmented as less than half of the animals are in isolated patches. It is recorded from three locations. The largest subpopulations occur in the Hogsback and Isidenge forest, while the western Katberg subpopulation is confined to a very small area (W. Conradie pers. comm. August 2016). All three subpopulations' status has recently been confirmed; Katberg and Isidenge confirmed as of April 2016 by W. Conradie and A. Rebelo and Hogsback confirmed as of July 2015 by W. Conradie.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It inhabits the leaf-litter of montane forest and lives on the forest edge, being particularly associated with the grassland-forest ecotone, and with small patches of grass and wetland inside forest. However, it is not found outside forest. Reproduction takes place by direct development, without a larval stage. The male is thought to make a nest using his hardened snout. About 11–20 eggs are laid in a hole in damp mud, among grass or under leaf litter. Each egg is 2.6 mm in diameter enclosed in a 6 mm jelly capsule. About four weeks is needed for development to be completed (Dawood and Stam 2006).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

There are no records of this species being utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is habitat loss due to wood collection, afforestation, encroachment of invasive plants and too-frequent fire regimes. The forests that this species inhabits are vulnerable to degradation due to changes in management of the surrounding landscape, especially with respect to alien plants. Pines are often planted right up to the natural forests, destroying the grassland-forest ecotone and subject to 'escapees' establishing themselves in natural forest patches (J. Tarrant pers. comm. August 2016). Logging and main roads have been noted to bisect some breeding sites. Its remaining habitat is very restricted and patchy.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions
It occurs in several state forests and nature reserves, including Hogsback Indigenous Forest, Katberg Forest, and Stutterheim Nature Reserve. Replanting of indigenous tree species within the distribution is underway in several areas around Hogsback (J. Tarrant pers. comm. August 2016).

Conservation Needed
Forest grassland ecotone protection might benefit this species and may be an undervalued habitat for conservation. 

Research Needed
More information about the phenology of this species would be useful, as well as trends in populations and assessment about the magnitude perceived threats.

Citation: IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group & South African Frog Re-assessment Group (SA-FRoG). 2016. Anhydrophryne rattrayi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T1301A511335. . Downloaded on 19 April 2018.
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