|Scientific Name:||Macaca radiata|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy, 1812)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies are recognized, distinguished on the grounds of both morphological (M. r. radiata is dark bellied and M. r. diluta is pale bellied), and behavioural differences (females largely disperse between groups only in M. r. diluta, while males disperse in both the subspecies; M. Singh pers. comm.).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Studies around Mysore (Singh and Rao 2004) indicate serious declines which, if shown to be replicated across the species' wide range, would necessitate a reassessment, at least to Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in peninsular India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu). It is found from the southern tip of India up to the southern banks of Tapti River in the north, and to the Krishna River in the northeast.
M. r. radiata
It occurs in peninsular India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu). It is found in the major portion of the species’ range south to the Palni Hills and southeast as far as Timbale, inland of Pondicherry.
M. r. diluta
It occurs in southeastern coastal India (Kerala and Tamil Nadu). It is found from the south tip and southeastern coast of India, north to Kambam in the Western Ghats, at the southwestern foot of the Palni Hills in the centre and Pondicherry in the east.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is a very high global population, and the species is locally abundant, including in anthropogenic habitat (Molur et al. 2003). The species is largely commensal and densities in forests are quite low. There has been a significant decline reported around Mysore in recent years: 41% in the last 20 years in certain habitats and an overall 21.5% decline in 20 years in commensal areas (Singh and Rao 2004; M. Singh pers. comm.). Decines have also been noted at Dharwad (M. Singh pers. comm.). This declining trend could be true in other parts of its range due to increased intolerance by humans (A. Kumar and M. Singh pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is both arboreal and terrestrial. It is found in all forest types from scrub to evergreen and deciduous forest, plantations, agricultural lands, and urban areas, and is tolerant of disturbed habitats (Corbet and Hill 1992; Molur et al. 2003). It prefers elevations below 2,000 m, but may be found up to 2,600 m (Molur et al. 2003).
M. r. radiata is widely distributed and is mostly commensal, while M. r. diluta is more restricted in its distribution, is mostly forest-dwelling, and does not occur as abundantly as the nominate subspecies (A. Kumar pers. comm.). This species is mainly frugivorous, preferring ripe fruits, but will also eat leaves, insects, and cultivated crops such as potatoes, carrots, peas, radishes, beans, cauliflowers, grain, rice, peanuts, squash, coconuts, and coffee beans.
|Major Threat(s):||It is locally hunted, with an active local trade in live animals for research and road shows (Molur et al. 2003). Human-animal conflict in agricultural and urban areas is an increasing threat to the species.|
Listed on CITES Appendix II. Conservation strategy for commensals would be to protect patches of scrub forests in hilly terrains with temples (M. Singh pers. comm.).
M. r. radiata occurs in numerous protected areas, including: Aralam Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park, Bhadra Sanctuary, Bondla Sanctuary, Chimmony Sanctuary, Chinnar Sanctuary, Dandeli Sanctuary, Eturnagaram Sanctuary, Gundlabrahmeshwaram Sanctuary, Idukki Sanctuary, Indira Gandhi Sanctuary, Kudremukh National Park, Lanja Madugu Sivaram Sanctuary, Mollem National Park, Mollem Sanctuary, Mudumalai NP, Mudumalai Sanctuary, Mukurthi National Park, Mundanthurai Sanctuary, Nagarahole National Park, Nagarjuna-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, Nellapattu Sanctuary, Parambikulam Sanctuary, Radhanagari Sanctuary, Ranganthitu Sanctuary, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Sri Venkateswara National Park, Tansa Sanctuary, Thattekkad Sanctuary, Wynaad Sanctuary, and others (Molur et al. 2003).
M. r. diluta occurs in Grizzled Giant Squirrel Sanctuary, Kalakkad Sanctuary, Mundanthurai Sanctuary, Neyyar Sanctuary, Peechi-Vazhani Sanctuary, Peppara Sanctuary, Periyar National Park, Periyar Sanctuary, Point Calimere Sanctuary and Shendurney Sanctuary(Molur et al. 2003)
|Citation:||Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S. 2008. Macaca radiata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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