|Scientific Name:||Leuciscus idus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species with no known major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Baltic, Black, northern Caspian and North Sea basins, Atlantic basin southward to Seine and lower Loire drainages (France). Absent in Scandinavia north of 69°N. In Asia, eastward to Lena drainage and Aral basin. Introduced to Great Britain and northern Italy.|
Native:Afghanistan; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Tajikistan; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Usually in large lowland rivers and nutrient-rich lakes. Migrates to tributaries for spawning in moderate current on gravel or submerged vegetation.
Juveniles gregarious, adults more solitary. Lives up to 15 years. Spawns for the first time at 5-6 years. Spawns in March-April, when temperature rises above 10°C. Females spawn only once each season. Adults often undertake long spawning migrations. Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females. Females attach the sticky eggs to gravel or submerged plant material. Feeding larvae and juveniles inhabit a wide variety of shoreline habitats. They leave the shores for deeper waters when growing. Reaches up to 130 mm SL during first year. Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals and plant material. Large individuals become predominantly piscivorous. Sometimes hybridises with Aspius aspius.
|Major Threat(s):||No major threats known.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Leuciscus idus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 April 2015.|
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