Map_thumbnail_large_font

Tarphius relictus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Arthropoda Insecta Coleoptera Zopheridae

Scientific Name: Tarphius relictus Borges & Serrano, 2017
Common Name(s):
English Ironclad Beetle
Synonym(s):
Tarphius azoricus
Taxonomic Source(s): Borges, P.A.V., Amormin, I.R., Terzopoulou, S. Rigal, F., Emerson, B.C. and Serrano, A.R.M. 2017. Cryptic diversity in the Azorean beetle genus Tarphius Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera: Zopheridae): An integrative taxonomic approach with description of four new species. Zootaxa 4236(3): 401-449 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4236.3.1.
Taxonomic Notes:

Tarphius azoricus in Borges (1990, pp. 99, 112) (Terceira Isl.)

Tarphius azoricus in Borges (1991, p. 2) (Terceira Isl.)

Tarphius azoricus in Borges et al. (2005, p. 207) (Terceira Isl.)

Tarphius azoricus in Oromí et al. (2010, p. 232) (Terceira Isl.)

Tarphius azoricus Amorim et al. (2012, Fig. 2) (Terceira Isl.)


Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-04-05
Assessor(s): Borges, P.A.V. & Lamelas-López, L.
Reviewer(s): Danielczak, A.
Justification:
Tarphius relictus is a single-island endemic species restricted to Terceira island (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2017). It has a reduced extent of occurrence (8 km²) and area of occupancy (8 km²). There is a continuing decline in the EOO, AOO, extent and quality of habitat as well as the number of mature individuals as a result of the invasions of non-native plants. The species is very rare, and only occurs in a small, disturbed site covered by exotic trees at low altitude, in Terceira island. Due to very restricted distribution, this species is the most endangered Tarphius species in the Azores (Borges et al. 2017). In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size. Therefore, we suggest as future measures of conservation: (1) a long-term monitoring plan of the species; (2) control of invasive species, and (3) translocation of individuals for the pristine patches of forest in the high altitude sites of Terceira Island (i.e. ex-situ conservation). The species is therefore assessed as Critically Endangered (CR).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Tarphius relictus is a single-island endemic species restricted to Terceira island (Azores, Portugal) (Borges et al. 2017), known in only one location (Biscoito das Fontinhas), being a very rare species. The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 8 km² and the maximum estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 8 km².
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Portugal (Azores)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:8Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):UnknownEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:8
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):Unknown
Number of Locations:1Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:UnknownLower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is very rare and only occurs in a small patch of exotic forest (Acacia sp.) in Terceira island (Borges et al. 2017). This is the most endangered Tarphius species in the Azores, due to restricted area of distribution and the existence of invasive plant species (Borges et al. 2017).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species is very rare, and only occurs in a small, disturbed site covered by exotic trees at low altitude, in Terceira island (Borges et al. 2017). It has an altitudinal range between 200 and 300 m. It is a nocturnal fungivorous species that lives in the soil and in dead wood.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):1
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilised.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the past, the species has probably strongly declined due to changes in habitat size and quality (Triantis et al. 2010). Currently, the rapid advance and expansion of invasive plants species is the major threat (Borges et al. 2017), particularly Hedychium gardnerianum and Pittosporum undulatum since are changing the habitat structure, namely decreasing the cover of bryophytes and ferns in the soil and promoting the spread of other plants. The management of the Acacia spp. patches could be also a problem for the unique surviving subpopulation. Based on Ferreira et al. 2016 the habitat will further decline as a consequence of climate change (increasing number of droughts and habitat shifting and alteration).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is not protected by regional law. Its habitat is now included in the Natural Park of Terceira (IUCN Type V level of protection). Degraded habitats should be restored and a strategy needs to be developed to address the future threat by climate change. We suggest as a possible additional measure of conservation the translocation of individuals for the pristine patches of forest in the high altitude sites of Terceira Island (i.e. ex-situ conservation). Since this species is an icon of the relict native Azorean forests, it is suggested that some awareness measures should be put in practice. Further research is needed into its ecology and life history in order to find additional extant specimens in some meddle elevation forest patches in Terceira island and obtain information on population size, distribution and trends. It is also necessary an area-based management plan and a monitoring plan for the invertebrate community in the habitat in order to contribute to perform a species potential recovery plan.

Citation: Borges, P.A.V. & Lamelas-López, L. 2017. Tarphius relictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T112214780A112214784. . Downloaded on 20 July 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided