|Scientific Name:||Xipholena atropurpurea|
|Species Authority:||(Wied, 1820)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Oniki, Y. & Willis, E.|
This species is Endangered because it has a very small and severely fragmented range in an area where there has been extensive habitat destruction.
|Range Description:||Xipholena atropurpurea is now virtually confined to 13 protected areas in east Brazil: Paraíba (old specimens and a few recent records), Pernambuco (a few recent records), Alagoas (recent records from two sites), Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (recent records from two sites).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Teixeira and de Almeida (1997) estimated the population to number 5,110-19,546 individuals, rounded here to 5,100-19,500 individuals. This is roughly equivalent to 3,400-13,000 mature individuals. Censuses at Estação Vera Cruz (formerly CRVD Porto Seguro), Bahia, estimated a mean of 12.42 individuals / km2 and a mean population of 748 which, extrapolated to the 13 protected areas (covering an area of 992 km2), totals 12,322 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It occurs in primary lowland and adjacent foothill Atlantic forest (up to 900 m), mostly in forests near the coast. In the northern part of its range it is found in dense primary forest, more open forest and semi-deciduous forests, but also occurs in selectively logged primary and secondary forests, as well as fragmented woodlots. The diet consists of fruit, especially Moraceae, Myrtaceae and Lauraceae, taken in the forest canopy or around clearings, and some insects (larval Lepidopterans and Orthoptera). It is mostly solitary, gathering only at fruiting trees, though, in south Bahia, birds have been observed associating with C. maculata and thrush Turdus spp. Males display between November and February, and nests (placed high in the fork of a branch) have been found in October and November.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by extensive and continuing deforestation, with nearly 60% of suitable habitat disappearing in the period 1980-1997. Many of the protected areas in which it occurs are still under threat and inadequately protected, such as Monte Pascoal in Bahia. Thirteen out of 29 fruiting trees included in its diet are exploited for timber. However, the species is rarely found in bird markets, and is only opportunistically hunted. A widespread fire in July 1995 destroyed most of the forest at one site in Bahia (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999), and such instances are a potential threat to many sites.|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and protected under Brazilian law. It is largely dependent on 13 protected areas, notably those at Pedra Talhada, Una, Monte Pascoal, Sooretama, Desengano and Linhares. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey all remnants of forest within its range. Monitor the population. Effectively protect key sites, especially the privately-owned Murici, Estação Vera Cruz and Linhares. Plant native trees in areas surrounding Sooretama and Linhares.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Xipholena atropurpurea. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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