|Scientific Name:||Haliaeetus vociferoides|
|Species Authority:||Des Murs, 1845|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Ratsimba, H., Réné De Roland, L., Safford, R. & Watson, R.|
This species has an extremely small population which is probably in decline, and it is therefore classified as Critically Endangered. Although the species is susceptible to a number of on-going threats, recent data have suggested that its population is stable, and may have been for some time; if this is confirmed, the species may warrant downlisting in the future.
|Range Description:||This species survives in low numbers along the west coast of Madagascar. Surveys during 1991-1995 recorded at least 222 adults and 99 breeding pairs from 105 sites, apparently concentrated into three main regions: the Antsalova region west of Bemaraha Reserve, along the Tsiribihina River, and the coast from Mahajamba Bay to the island of Nosy Hara (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). Although this estimate is double an estimate from the period 1980-1985, this is probably due to more comprehensive surveying, and a decline in some areas was still recorded (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). Recent surveys suggest that the Antsalova district is the main stronghold, with 12 pairs in the Manambolomaty complex and a further 15 pairs elsewhere in the district in 2008 (L.-A. Réné de Roland in litt. 2008), and the population is currently thought to comprise c.120 breeding pairs (R. Watson in litt. 2010). Immature birds wander widely, making the non-breeding population difficult to assess (Langrand 1990, Rabarisoa et al. 1997).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The current population is thought to be around 120 breeding pairs, equating to 240 mature individuals and roughly 360 individuals in total (R. Watson in litt. 2010).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is found predominantly in wooded areas adjacent to waterbodies (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). It favours sites with large trees by the shoreline suitable for perching (Berkelman 1997), and feeds mainly on fish (Langrand 1990, Berkelman et al. 1999a,b), with the majority of prey in one study comprising two species of non-native tilapia (Berkelman 1997). Breeding pairs are territorial (May-October) (Rabarisoa et al. 1997), and nest in a large tree or rock cliff. Annual productivity is low (0.15 young fledged per territory [Watson et al. 1999]) because clutch-size is only one or two (three recorded at one nest in 2005) and only one chick is raised, due to siblicide (Watson 1998, Watson et al. 1999); and in one third of breeding attempts no eggs are laid (Watson et al. 1999).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Major Threat(s):||Deforestation, soil erosion and the development of wetland areas for rice-paddies is causing the on-going loss of nesting and foraging habitat (Rabarisoa et al. 1997, Berkelman et al. 1999a, Watson and Rabarisoa 2000, L.-A. Réné de Roland in litt. 2011, R. Safford in litt. 2011). The species is threatened by direct human competition for fish-stocks (Watson 1998, Watson and Rabarisoa 2000), persecution through the taking of nestlings and shooting of adults, accidental entanglement in fishing-nets, disturbance at breeding sites by human activities and, according to local people, use of eagle body parts in food and traditional medicine (Rabarisoa et al. 1997, H. R. Ratsimba in litt. 2006, R. Safford in litt. 2011). Water pollution poses a potential threat (H. R. Ratsimba in litt. 2006), given the species's reliance on fish and the tendency for pollutants to accumulate in prey tissues. The species has been recorded to have low genetic diversity compared to other Haliaeetus species; however, this is not thought to be because of the recent population bottleneck, hence it is not thought to be a major threat (Johnson et al. 2009).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Since 1991, the species has been studied in the Antsalova region, where an on-going conservation programme aims to increase the known breeding population to at least 250 pairs. Activities to reach such a target include the enforcement of existing traditional laws at the local community level, and in two cases through the release of captive-reared birds rescued from siblicide (Rabarisoa et al. 1997, Peregrine Fund 1998, Watson 1998), with the latter almost doubling the number of young fledged per nest in one study (Watson et al. 1999). Manambolomaty (the Three Lakes Complex), is a Ramsar Site and official protection was expected to be confirmed for the area in early 2009 (Peregrine Fund 2008); this site and surrounding area supported 28 territorial pairs in 2006. Persecution has been reduced at Soamalipo Lake through the establishment of a research camp by The Peregrine Fund in 1991, accompanied by community outreach activities, resulting in increased breeding productivity (Razafimanjato et al. 2007).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor the population size and distribution to detect changes (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). Increase awareness within local communities in order to reduce persecution and protect habitat around nest sites (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). Manage the wild population to increase the population size and distribution in suitable habitat (Rabarisoa et al. 1997). Investigate the factors limiting the number of available breeding territories, survival rates of immatures and adults, and breeding productivity (Watson et al. 1999).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Haliaeetus vociferoides. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 May 2013.|
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