|Scientific Name:||Gallinago media|
|Species Authority:||(Latham, 1787)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Ash, J., Baha El Din, S., Ekblom, R., Hall, P., Kålås, J. & Morozov, V.|
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is thought to be experiencing a moderately rapid population decline, owing primarily to habitat loss and degradation, as well as hunting pressure (Tucker and Heath 1994). Any evidence that the decline is more rapid may qualify the species for uplisting to a higher threat category.
Gallinago media breeds primarily in Russia, east to 95°E (150,000-250,000 males), with large numbers in Belarus (12,000-20,000 males) and Norway (10,000-20,000 mature individuals [J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007]). It also breeds in Poland, Finland, Sweden (1,800 lekking males [Ekblom and Carlsson 2007]), Estonia (500-700 males [Kålås et al. 1997]), Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The Scandinavian population probably numbers 13,000-25,000 mature individuals (J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007). The total population is estimated at 500,000-1,050,000 individuals (V. Morozov in litt. 2007). It should be noted that the estimation of effective breeding populations from numbers of lekking males is difficult as possibly only 50% of males obtain matings (J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007). From early August, it migrates through central Asia, central and south-eastern Europe (notably Turkey and Cyprus) Tunisia and Egypt, with birds gathering in wet high-plateau grasslands in Ethiopia (J. Ash in litt. 1999). When these dry out in October, birds follow the rains south and west to Sudan, South Sudan, Chad, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa, Angola and Namibia. Its range has contracted and numbers have declined since the late 19th century.
Native:Albania; Algeria; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Benin; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Montenegro; Mozambique; Namibia; Nigeria; Norway; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Belgium; British Indian Ocean Territory; India; Ireland; Jordan; Luxembourg; Morocco; Myanmar; Oman; Portugal; Seychelles; Somalia; Spain; Sri Lanka; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Yemen
Present - origin uncertain:Afghanistan; Austria; Equatorial Guinea; Liechtenstein; Switzerland
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are an estimated 13,000-25,000 mature individuals in Scandinavia (roughly equivalent to 15,000-40,000 total individuals) (J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007) and 450,000-1,000,000 individuals in W Siberia and NE Europe (V. Morozov in litt. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour This species is migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from mid-May to early-July and nests solitarily, although it has a polygamous mating system (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Males form leks after sunset (del Hoyo et al. 1996) from May to July, each lek holding 5-30 males (Johnsgard 1981). The departure from the breeding grounds occurs from early-August onwards, with the species arriving on its wintering grounds just after the rainy season (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is generally solitary on migration although groups of up to 10 have been recorded (Cramp and Simmons 1983). On the non-breeding grounds it is also predominantly solitary but sometimes occurs in small scattered flocks (Cramp and Simmons 1983). It usually forages singly or in small groups (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The return northward migration occurs on a broad front across Africa between March and April (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The southern breeding birds go directly to their breeding grounds, while the northern breeding birds probably use more southern roosting sites while waiting for the breeding areas to become available in early June. Habitat Breeding Nesting habitats include flood-plain and tussock meadows, natural fens with scattered bushes and peatlands up to 1,200 m (J. Ash in litt. 1999) in lowland interior taiga and wooded tundra (Cramp and Simmons 1983). In the Scandinavian mountains it breeds along the tree line. It shows a preference for habitats rich in sub-surface invertebrates and medium density scrub cover for nesting, often in wide river valleys (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Although generally associated with moist to wet terrain, it is tolerant of wooded, and occasionally well-drained sites that adjoin bogs or marshes (Cramp and Simmons 1983). A considerable area of marshy ground may be essential for display purposes (Cramp and Simmons 1983). Many sites are fringed with willow Salix, alder Alnus and Birch Betula growing as scrub or woodland, or burnt areas in course of regrowth (Cramp and Simmons 1983). It favours areas where the ground is covered with mosses, lichens and dead and decaying leaves (Johnsgard 1981). Juveniles are often found around springs in steppe, or even in wheatfields (Cramp and Simmons 1983). Non-breeding On migration it occurs in drier meadows but also on sedge marshes with G. gallinago. It gathers on wet high-plateau grasslands in Ethiopia (J. Ash in litt. 1999) before these dry out in October, after which it follows the rains south and west (del Hoyo et al. 1996). During the winter it frequents wetland areas, including marshlands and short grass or sedges on lake edges or in flooded fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is also found in drier habitats such as moorland, sand dunes (Johnsgard 1981), tracks in wooded areas, in plough furrows and occasionally at puddles on dirt roads or in old cultivation (Cramp and Simmons 1983). Diet Its diet consists predominantly of earthworms as well as gastropods, adult and larval terrestrial insects (beetles, tipulids), and the seeds of marsh plants (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow depression with a slight lining of grass or moss (Cramp and Simmons 1983). It is situated on the ground or on grassy tussocks in swamps (Johnsgard 1981). It is often completely concealed in thick vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but may be fairly exposed (Johnsgard 1981).|
Rapid declines in the southern forest and forest-steppe zones of Russia and Ukraine are largely a result of the destruction and deterioration of nesting habitats. The main causes of habitat loss are conversion to intensive agriculture (Kålås et al. 1997), wetland drainage and the submergence of river valleys during the creation of reservoirs. It is also hunted in eastern Europe and in its wintering range (Kålås 2003), with reports of several thousands killed in just 15-20 days in Amasia, Armenia (L. Balyan in litt. 2008). Habitat loss due to climate change may represent the most severe threat to the Scandinavian population (R. Ekblom in litt. 2007, J. A. Kålås in litt. 2007).
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II. An international single species action plan was published in 2004 (R. Ekblom in litt. 2007). National action plans for this species have been published for several countries, including Sweden, Estonia, Ukraine and Latvia (R. Ekblom in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish coordinated monitoring programmes in all countries within the species's distribution range to monitor trends. Research population numbers and trends in Russia. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status. Investigate the impact of climate change on the species and determine mitigation measures. Work with farmers and land managers to ensure the use of favourable land management. Initiate changes in agricultural practices through EU and national policies.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Gallinago media. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 May 2013.|
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