|Scientific Name:||Prunella ocularis (Radde, 1884)|
Prunella fagani (Ogilvie-Grant, 1913)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Native:Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Pakistan; Syrian Arab Republic; Turkey
Present - origin uncertain:Afghanistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 11,100-33,200 pairs, which equates to 22,100-66,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 40,200-120,900 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species breeds in rocky pastureland with scattered barberry (Berberis) bushes, in Turkey. In Transcaucasia, it breeds on rocky mountain slopes with scrubby juniper (Juniperus), cedar (Cedrus) and other vegetation and in the winter, it is also found in shrubby areas adjacent to mountain streams. Its breeding habits are not well documented. Nests have been found between June and August and they are a cup of twigs, leaves and stems, lined with hair, wool, grass and moss, placed low down in low bush. Clutches are three to four eggs. The diet includes insects and seeds. The species is most likely resident with altitudinal movement and some short-distance migration (Hatchwell 2016).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat to this species is thought to be due to habitat degradation in lower-lying non-breeding areas (Hatchwell 2016) from intensive pastoral farming and the associated increases in burning and cutting of bushes, which serve as the only secure nesting places for the species. Intensive cattle-grazing also increases the risk of nest predation by weasels (Mustela nivalis) and corvids such as Magpies (Pica pica) (Tucker and Heath 1994).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Patches of suitable breeding habitat (in particular scattered clumps of Juniperus or Berberis bushes) in low-intensity traditionally managed montane pastures. The species should be monitored and research into potential threats undertaken (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Prunella ocularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T105986083A88040725.Downloaded on 21 July 2018.|
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