Oriolus oriolus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Oriolidae

Scientific Name: Oriolus oriolus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Eurasian Golden Oriole
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Oriolus oriolus and O. kundoo (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as O. oriolus following AERC TAC (2003), Cramp et al. (1977-1994), Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993) and Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Dowsett, R.J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Comoros; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Maldives; Malta; Mauritania; Mayotte; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Tunisia; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Benin; Congo; Faroe Islands; Gabon; Iceland; Ireland; Lesotho; Madagascar; Mali; Niger; Sao Tomé and Principe; Seychelles
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:11500000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):2400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 4,370,000-8,020,000 pairs, which equates to 8,740,000-16,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms >50% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 17,480,000-32,000,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  This population is suspected to be stable overall, with the European population trend stable between 1982 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:17000000-31999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In western Europe the species is usually found in semi-open, mixed broadleaf woodlands and plantations, riverine forests with tall willows (Salix) and poplars (Populus), forested steppes, groves, copses, orchards, parks, large gardens, windbreaks, avenue trees, and other tree clumps in cultivated areas. It also occurs in larger and more continuous deciduous, coniferous or mixed forests in eastern Europe. In Asia it is found in floodplain woods and groves, riverine vegetation, open deciduous woods, village plantations, taiga edges and oases, to 2,150 m. In the African non-breeding quarters, it uses semi-arid to humid deciduous woodlands, e.g. miombo (Brachystegia) and mopane (Colophospermum), forest edges, tall closed-canopy gallery forest, riverine acacias (Acacia), forest-savanna mosaics, tree savannas, exotic plantations, windbreaks, orchards and gardens, up to 1,500 m (Walther and Jones 2008). Eggs are laid mainly in May and June and the nest is built by the female only, although the male may collect some material. The nest is a shallow to deep open-cup structure woven from grass, sedges, reeds, leaves, twigs, cloth, string, paper and plastic strips, strips of bark and other plant fibres and then lined with fine fibres, roots and grasses, feathers, cocoons, cobweb, down, cotton, fur, wool, moss, lichens, straw and small pieces of paper. It is suspended hammock-like in thin, horizontal forked branch, typically high in outer edge of well-foliaged tree canopy. Clutches are usually three to five eggs. Its diet is mainly small invertebrates and fruits but it occasionally consumes seeds, nectar, pollen and rarely, small lizards, small mammals, eggs and nestlings (Walther and Jones 2008). The species is migratory, wintering in the climatically temperate, equatorial African high woodlands and moist montane forests of East Africa (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.7
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Brood size can be severely affected by weather conditions which may cause large, short-term fluctuations in the population at regional or supra-regional level. The species is persecuted in Greece (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997), as they consume large quantities of fruit and are thus considered a pest by some fruit-farmers (Walther and Jones 2008). In the U.K., the loss of large poplar plantations has led to the decline of the species there (Holling and the Rare Birds Breeding Panel 2007). In addition, climate change may pose a threat in the future (Mason and Allsop 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The species occurs in many protected areas throughout its breeding range (Walther and Jones 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed
In the U.K., the restoration of areas of poplar woodland of at least 30 ha with plenty of woodland edges is recommended for the conservation of this species (Milwright 1998). The impact of persecution should be assessed and legislation introduced to minimise this.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Added Taxonomic Notes and associated references, a Country of Occurrence and a Contributor.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Oriolus oriolus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103692938A111783061. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
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