|Scientific Name:||Hipposideros hypophyllus|
|Species Authority:||Kock & Bhat, 1994|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species belongs to the bicolor species group (Srinivasulu and Srinivasulu 2012).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(iii,iv,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Chakravarty, R., Srinivasulu, B. & Srinivasulu, C.|
The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat is now known from only one cave and there is continuing decline in the quality of its roosting habitat on account of illegal and rampant granite mining. Its area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 10 km² and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is less than 100 km². Additionally, the population is estimated at 150-200 individuals. The species is thus listed as Critically Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat (Hipposideros hypophyllus) is endemic to India. It is presently known only from one cave in Hanumanahalli village in Kolar district, Karnataka. In addition to Hanumanahalli, it was previously recorded from Therahalli village (also in Kolar district) but its absence in Therahalli and other adjoining areas has been confirmed by Srinivasulu et al. (2014). Thus, its extent of occurrence (EOO) is now less than 100 km² and its area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be less than 10 km² based on the average known home ranges of similar-sized bats.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Approximate counts at the only known roost of the species estimate the population to be 150-200 individuals (Srinivasulu et al. 2014). The population trend is inferred to be declining as the current roost count is lower than that reported by Kock and Bhat (1994).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
This species roosts in a narrow, inaccessible, subterranean cave on a monolithic granite hill. It shares the roost with H. durgadasi, H. fulvus and H. speoris (Srinivasulu et al. 2014). Little is known about its habitat use or ecology. The habitat in the vicinity of the cave is tropical dry shrubland surrounded by villages and agricultural fields (R. Chakravarty pers. obs). Individuals were observed with fat deposits in winter (Srinivasulu et al. 2014) suggesting that they might go through periods of torpor.
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||5|
This species is imperilled by illegal granite mining occurring in close vicinity of its only known roost in a subterranean cave. Apart from mining itself, bats have also been reported to abandon two other roosts due to fires lit for easier extraction of granite (Srinivasulu et al. 2014). The potentially adverse effects of pesticide use in surrounding human habitation and agricultural fields have yet to be ascertained.
Hipposideros hypophyllus does not occur in any protected area and is also unprotected in the Indian law. Conservation measures have been initiated by a team of researchers from Osmania University, Hyderabad. A temporary ban on mining has been imposed on the granite hill which harbours the roosting site. The team is also working towards spreading awareness among villagers in Hanumanahalli village (B. Srinivasulu and C. Srinivasulu in litt). There is an urgent need to curb illegal granite mining and quarrying within five to ten kilometre radius of the roost to ensure the quality of other subterranean caves in the area. Meanwhile, widespread cave explorations and acoustic sampling are recommended to understand the distribution of the species. Periodic roost counts and population monitoring are required to assess the population trend. Lastly, it is essential to accord legal protection to H. hypophyllus under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
|Citation:||Chakravarty, R., Srinivasulu, B. & Srinivasulu, C. 2016. Hipposideros hypophyllus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T10138A22092730.Downloaded on 24 September 2016.|
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