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Hipposideros diadema

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CHIROPTERA HIPPOSIDERIDAE

Scientific Name: Hipposideros diadema
Species Authority: Geoffroy, 1813
Common Name/s:
English Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat, Diadem Horseshoe-bat, Diadem Leafnosed-bat, Diadem Roundleaf Bat
Synonym/s:
Hipposideros nicobarensis (Dobson, 1871)
Phyllorhina nicobarensis Dobson, 1871
Rhinolophus diadema É. Geoffroy, 1813
Taxonomic Notes: This species belongs to diadema species group. Ellerman and Morrison-Scott (1951) treat the taxon nicobarensis Dobson, 1871 as distinct species, but is not considered so by Simmons (2005) (Srinivasulu et al. in press). The populations of Sulawesi and of Australia (T. Reardon pers. comm.) may be specifically distinct. Southern Lao specimens are genetically distinct, it is uncertain whether this represents a separate species (Francis pers. comm.). Hipposideros inornatus was formerly considered to be a subspecies of Hipposideros diadema.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Helgen, Bates, P., Gumal, M., Kingston, T., Balete, D., Esselstyn, J. & Heaney, L.
Reviewer/s: Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Cox, N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance to some degree of habitat modification, and because it is unlikely to be declining at nearly the rate required to qualify for listing in a threatened category.
History:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This widespread species ranges from the Nicobar Islands of India through Southeast Asia to Australia. On the Nicobar Islands, the endemic subspecies H. d. nicobarensis is present on the islands of Bompuka, Katchal, Tillangchong, Tressa and Trinket (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). In Southeast Asia, it ranges from southern Myanmar, into Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam and southern Lao PDR, to Peninsular Malaysia, and from here to much of Indonesia (including the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Sulawesi), East Timor, the island of Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), and the Philippines. In the Philippines it is found in all regions (sea level to 900 m asl) except the Batanes/Babuyan region. Specimens have been collected from the Philippines islands of Bohol, Busuanga, Calauit, Catanduanes, Cebu (Lawrence, 1939), Dinagat, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon [Benguet (Taylor, 1934), Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Sur, Ilocos Norte, Isabela, Laguna, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Quezon, Rizal (Taylor, 1934) provinces], Mindanao [Agusan del Norte, Bukidnon, Davao Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Maguindanao, South Cotabato (Sanborn, 1952), Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur (Taylor, 1934)], Mindoro (Lawrence, 1939), Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Siquijor (Heaney et al., 1998). There are some records from the island of Tawi-tawi (K. Helgen pers. comm.). On the island of New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea) it is found in scattered localities and it is present throughout much of the Bismarck Archipelago (Papua New Guinea). The species has been recorded from the islands of Bougainville and Buka (Papua New Guinea), and from many of the Solomon Islands. It is present in Australia where it is largely restricted to the rainforests of northern Queensland (Corbet and Hill 1992; Flannery 1995; Strahan 1995; Bonaccorso 1998). It is found from sea level to 1,300 m asl.
Countries:
Native:
Australia; Cambodia; India; Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Jawa, Kalimantan, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Sulawesi, Sumatera); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Myanmar; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Solomon Islands; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The Nicobar subspecies, H.d. nicobarensis, is very common and has been found to roost in large colonies of over 500 bats to small colonies of over 30 bats on four islands of Nicobar Islands (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). It was first recorded from a cave on Trinket Island, but it does not occur on that island anymore (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003), the reason for this disappearance is unknown. In the Philippines this species is considered to be locally common (Heaney et al., 1998). There can be large roosts or thousands or more individuals, though the species often roost in small numbers (K. Helgen and L. Heaney pers. comm.). In New Guinea it is a relatively common species (Flannery 1995).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: On the Nicobar Islands it is colonial and roosts in small to large colonies, hanging singly from high chambers in cave roofs and roosts with other Hipposideros spp. (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). It feeds on beetles. It is a low flier in gallery forests, over water pools and also found in disturbed forests (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). A single young is born in a separate maternity roost (Bates and Harrison 1997), and pregnant females have been observed in the month of March (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). In Southeast Asia, the species occurs in primary forest and disturbed lowland forest areas, including riparian areas (Heaney et al. 1998). And roosts in hollow trees, caves and man-made tunnels (Heaney et al. in press; Lepiten, 1995; Rickart et al. 1993; Sanborn, 1952). Animals have been collected from trees within agricultural areas (J. Esselstyn and L. Heaney pers. comm.). In New Guinea and Australia, it has been recorded from primary and secondary tropical moist forest, dry open woodland, rural gardens and plantations (Bonaccorso 1998). The species roosts in caves, disused mines, hollow trees and old buildings. The females give birth to a single young (Bonaccorso 1998). Maternity colonies may consist of several thousand animals (Bonaccorso 1998).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There appear to be no major threats overall to this widespread species. The Nicobar subspecies is threatened by edible swiftlet nest collection activities in caves; although the reason for its disappearance from one cave is unknown (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). In Southeast Asia it is likely to be locally threatened by hunting and cave exploitation. In the Australian range some threats include habitat loss due to disturbance, loss of roosting sites, and loss of foraging habitat to agriculture (L. Hall pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no direct conservation measures in place for this taxon in India. It has not been recorded from any protected areas. Protection of roost site from edible swift nest collectors is highly recommended (Aul and Vijaykumar 2003). In Southeast Asia and Australia it is present in a number of protected areas. Important maternity roosts should be identified and protected. Further studies are needed into the taxonomy of this species.
Citation: Csorba, G., Bumrungsri, S., Francis, C., Helgen, Bates, P., Gumal, M., Kingston, T., Balete, D., Esselstyn, J. & Heaney, L. 2008. Hipposideros diadema. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 April 2014.
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