|Scientific Name:||Tinamus major|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Taylor, J.|
|Contributor/s:||Lees, A. & Panjabi, A.|
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the species’s susceptibility to habitat fragmentation and hunting, it is suspected that its population will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||Tinamus major has a wide distribution within the Neotropics, with 12 recognised subspecies. Subspecies robustus occurs in south-east Mexico, east Guatemala and Honduras, overlapping with percautus, also occuring in south-east Mexico as well as north Guatemala and Belize. Subspecies fuscipennis ranges from north Nicaragua through Costa Rica to west Panama, overlapping with castaneiceps which occurs in south-west Costa Rica and west Panama. Subspecies brunneiventris is endemic to south-central Panama. Subspecies saturatus occurs in east Panama and north-west Colombia. Subspecies latifrons is distributed in south-west Colombia and west Ecuador, where it is uncommon to rare (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies zuliensis occurs in north-east Colombia and north Venezuela. Subspecies peruvianus ranges from south-east Colombia and east Ecuador through Peru to north-east Bolivia and extreme west Brazil. Subspecies serratus is endemic to north-west Brazil. The nominate subspecies major ranges from east Venezuela through Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana to north-east Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1992); this taxon is abundant where forest is intact (Restall et al. 2006). Subspecies olivascens occurs in Amazonian Brazil (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Partners in Flight estimate the total population to number 500,000-4,999,999 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species occurs in dense rainforest of both "terra firme" (no flooding) and "várzea" (seasonally-flooded) types, up to 1,500 m. It feeds on the forest floor, predominantly on berries, fruits and seeds, but will also take nuts and small animals. Breeding is generally between January and July, but perhaps all year round in Suriname where it has been recorded breeding in September. The nest is made between the buttress roots of large trees (del Hoyo et al. 1992).|
|Major Threat(s):||The species's main threat comes from habitat loss across its large range, in particulr accelerating deforestation in Amazonia: despite its large range it is predicted to lose over 15% of its available habitat in the next three generations (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is likely to be sensitive to degradation (A. Lees in litt. 2011) especially given its preference for tall, undisturbed forest. In addition to this it is prized as a dish (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and heavily hunted (A. Lees in litt. 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions ProposedExpand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Tinamus major. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 June 2013.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|