2012 Photo Gallery

The photographs presented here represent a selection of species from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2012) and were contributed from a range of sources including IUCN SSC Specialist Group members. If you wish to use any of these photographs, please contact the photographers directly to request their permission to do so. For a wider selection of threatened species imagery, please see ARKive (www.arkive.org), an online multi-media of the world's species.



Black Rhinoceros_Diceros bicornis

The iconic Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) has once again been assessed as Critically Endangered, a category it has held since 1996. Its population has declined by an estimated 97.6% since 1960, with numbers bottoming out at 2,410 in 1995, mainly as a result of poaching. Since then, numbers have been steadily increasing at a continental level with numbers doubling to 4,880 by the end of 2010. Current numbers are however still 90% lower than three generations ago. Photo © Steve Garvie, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Pale fox_Vulpes pallida

The least well-known of all canid species, the Pale Fox (Vulpes pallida) was until this year listed as Data Deficient. With new information available, this species has now been assessed as Least Concern since, although there is no detailed information on its abundance, the species is relatively widespread in the ecological band lying between the true desert of the Sahara and the sub-Saharan savannas. Further studies on its distribution, status and ecological requirements are still required. Photo © Markus Lilje / Rockjumper Birding Tours

Beluga_Delphinapterus leucas

Widely distributed in the Arctic, the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) has been assessed globally as Near Threatened. There is substantial uncertainty about numbers and trends, especially in the Russian Arctic, and significant threats include hunting for human consumption, oil and gas development, expansion of fisheries, hydroelectric development, and pollution. Climate change will probably increase the scale and distribution of these activities. In greater peril, however, is the Cook Inlet subpopulation of this species. Cook Inlet belugas are genetically distinct from the other four Beluga subpopulations that occur in western and northern Alaska, and this subpopulation is now estimated to number just 207 mature individuals. The subpopulation has continued to decline even after the only identified cause (excessive hunting) has been controlled, and it has therefore been assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Victor Lyagushkin

Steller Sea Lion_Eumetopias jubatus

The Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) was previously assessed as Endangered, but is now Near Threatened thanks to a genuine improvement in its situation. This northern Pacific species has two subspecies, one of which experienced a dramatic and unexplained population decline between the late 1970s and 1990. This downward trend has recently started to turn around. Meanwhile, the population of the second subspecies has been steadily increasing since 1979, and so the species as a whole has only declined by 28% over the last three generations, with the population currently increasing. Photo © Andrew Reding, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en_GB

Caqueta Titi Monkey_Callicebus caquetensis

Described in 2010, the Caquetá Tití Monkey (Callicebus caquetensis) has been assessed for the first time in 2012 as Critically Endangered. It is endemic to eastern Colombia, and occurs in an area subject to intense human colonization that has caused widespread habitat destruction and fragmentation. Socioeconomic conditions in southern Caquetá are difficult, and the rural population suffers from a lack of basic necessities. These conditions threaten the Caquetá Titi Monkey because many people use the forest fragments to satisfy basic needs, notably hunting wild animals for food, including this species. Photo © Javier Garcia

Myanmar Snub-nosed Monkey_Rhinopithecus strykeri

The recently described (2011) Myanmar Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri) is endemic to northeastern Myanmar. After two years of field work, the only direct encounters with this species were by local support staff (twice), not by any scientists. The presence of the species in the wild was only confirmed through camera traps over a nine month period. This Critically Endangered monkey is hunted for its bones and head (skull and brains) presumably for medicinal purposes, and for its fur. Though sometimes deliberately targeted, monkeys are most often unintentionally trapped in iron traps set to capture deer or wild pigs to supply the local bush meat trade. Habitat degradation is also rapidly becoming a major threat, due the impacts of logging. Photo © FFI/BANCA


Pink-throated Brilliant_Heliodoxa gularis

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, it is suspected that the population of the Pink-throated Brilliant (Heliodoxa gularis) will decline rapidly over the next three generations. Having previously been assessed as Near Threatened, it is therefore now uplisted to Vulnerable. This hummingbird occurs in the east Andean foothills of south-west Colombia and adjacent north-central Ecuador, with some records from north Peru. Forests in its altitudinal range are under intense pressure from clearance for agriculture and cattle pasture, low-intensity farming, tea and coffee growing, mining operations and logging. Photo © Chris Sloan

Raratonga Monarch_Pomarea dimidiata

Once among the rarest birds of the world, the Rarotonga Monarch (Pomarea dimidiata) has been brought back from the brink of extinction. It has been downlisted to Vulnerable as the population has increased in recent years owing to intensive conservation efforts in the Cook Islands, where this species is endemic to Rarotonga. However, it still has a very small population and range and remains threatened by chance events such as cyclones other stochastic factors that could drive it to qualify as Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a short time period. The survival of the species remains dependent on a continuation of intensive conservation. Photo © Hugh Robertson

Ornate Hawk-eagle_Spizaetus ornatus

The Ornate Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) has a large range throughout most of the Neotropics. The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin, through which it is projected to lose up to 40% of its habitat. Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin and habitat loss and persecution elsewhere within its range, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations. It has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened. Photo © Santiago Restrepo Calle. Licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.0 License.

Hoary throated Spinetail_Synallaxis kollari

Uplisted from Vulnerable to Endangered in 2008, the Hoary-throated Spinetail (Synallaxis kollari) has now moved up a further category, to Critically Endangered. This bird has a very small fragmented range in Brazil and Guyana, and faces an extremely rapid population decline as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production. Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, it is expected to lose over 80% of its habitat by 2023. Photo © Mikael Bauer

Long-tailed Duck_Clangula hyemalis

Previously considered Least Concern, the Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis) appears to be undergoing a steep population decline and has been uplisted to Vulnerable. This circumpolar species is affected by many threats, including wetland habitat degradation and loss, direct mortality from oil pollution, drowning through entanglement in fishing nets, hunting and disease. The breeding success of this (and other) species seems to have declined since the mid-1990s, when the formerly distinctive 3-4 year cycle in the abundance of Arctic rodents collapsed, probably due to climate change. With fewer rodents around, Arctic predators now take a heavier toll on breeding birds every year, instead of only once every 3-4 years. However, the main reason for low breeding productivity seems likely to be connected mainly with skipped breeding, rather than with increased predation pressure, possibly owing to worsened female body condition. Photo © Andrew Reding. Licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.0 License.

Rio Branco Antbird_Cercomacra carbonaria

The Rio Branco Antbird (Cercomacra carbonaria) has been uplisted three categories, from Near Threatened to Critically Endangered, reflecting its much increased risk of extinction due to habitat destruction. It is only found within 500m of river edges, and is expected to lose 100% of its suitable habitat within the next 20 years. In order to prevent the extinction of this bird, protection of its habitat is urgently needed. Photo © Mikael Bauer

Restinga Antwren_Formicivora littoralis

Previously considered Critically Endangered, the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis) has been found to occupy a larger range than previously thought. This Brazilian bird has therefore been reassessed as Endangered. However, its range remains very small, severely fragmented and in on-going decline owing to habitat loss and degradation, caused primarily by beachfront development. Photo © Luiz Freire

Regent Honeyeater_Xanthomyza phrygia

The Regent Honeyeater (Xanthomyza phrygia) has been uplisted to Critically Endangered on the 2012 Red List, because its population is inferred to have undergone extremely rapid declines over the past three generations (24 years). These declines have been driven primarily by drought, compounded by habitat loss caused by historic clearance for agriculture, and possibly competition with other native species. It is endemic to southeast Australia and now has an extremely patchy distribution. Photo © Tim Williams. Licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 2.0 License.

Rueppells Vulture_Gyps rueppellii

In Africa, vulture species including the Rueppell’s Vulture (Gyps rueppellii) are mirroring the fate of their Asian cousins, with rapid declines linked to poisoning, persecution and habitat loss. This species (previously Near Threatened) has been reassessed as Endangered. Their declines have much wider impacts, since vultures play a key role in food webs by feeding on dead animals. Photo © John Karmali


Grand Cayman Blue Iguana_Cyclura lewisi

As a direct result of conservation action, plus natural reproduction in protected areas, the Grand Cayman Blue Iguana (Cyclura lewisi) has been brought back from the brink of extinction. The population of this species declined to extremely low levels due to threats such as introduced species (e.g. feral dogs, cats, and rats) and habitat conversion – by 2000, the wild population was believed to number less than 25 adults. Due to captive breeding and head-starting, the wild population of Grand Cayman Blue Iguanas is increasing and is currently estimated at 443 wild adults. With ongoing conservation work, experts anticipate that the wild population will rise to 1,000 iguanas and stabilize within the next three generations. This species, previously Critically Endangered, has now been reassessed as Endangered. Photo © John Binns

Rotuma Forest Gecko_Lepidodactylus gardineri

Endemic to Rotuma, a small island in Fifi, the Rotuma Forest Gecko (Lepidodactylus gardineri) is a highly arboreal species which is strongly dependent on secondary forest. Clearance of this secondary growth forest for farmland could have devastating effects on this Vulnerable species, which is not found in any protected areas. Photo © Paddy Ryan

Pacific Bluetail Skink_Emoia caeruleocauda

The Pacific Bluetail Skink (Emoia caeruleocauda) is a widespread species from the Indo-Pacific. It is common and found in a wide array of habitats including forest clearings and rural gardens, and is not thought to be under any significant threats. This newly-assessed species therefore enters the Red List as Least Concern. Photo © Geordie Torr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

Hemidactylus lemurinus

Hemidactylus lemurinus is an uncommon species of gecko found in localized patches in Oman and Yemen. Its known habitats are difficult to access and subject to no apparent threats, but it is limited to very restricted and isolated subpopulations and has a very narrow ecological niche. More research is therefore needed to establish whether it is able to persist in these fragmentary populations, and whether it is sensitive to even light levels of disturbance. It is therefore assessed as Data Deficient. Photo © Todd Pierson, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

Mediterranean Chameleon_Chamaeleo chamaeleon

Found in southern Europe, northern Africa and southwestern Asia, the Mediterranean Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) is a Least Concern species. It is threatened locally by loss of habitat through urbanization and the development of tourist facilities, agricultural intensification, predation by domestic animals, accidental mortality on roads and by illegal collection of animals (including for the international pet trade and for remedies or as a talisman), but these threats are not thought to be having a significant impact on the species as a whole. Photo © R. Sindaco

Acanthodactylus felicis

Threatened by localized habitat destruction due to coastal development, Acanthodactylus felicis has been assessed as Vulnerable. This Arabian lizard is found in areas of hard, gravelly soil with scattered bushes, and has also been recorded in sand dunes near to the beach. This species is likely to disappear from sites following development, but due to the localized distribution of this species, it is unclear whether this represents a major threat. As subpopulations are isolated from one another it may be at risk of local extirpation. Photo © R. Sindaco

Arabian Horned Viper_Cerastes gasperetti

The Arabian Horned Viper (Cerastes gasperetti) is threatened in Saudi Arabia by over-collection for venom extraction. However, it has a wide distribution, and there are no major threats to this species in the Arabian Peninsula part of its range. It is presumed to have a large population which is stable overall, and has been assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Zuhair Amr, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en

Nolasco Spiny-tailed Iguana_Ctenosaura nolascensis

The Nolasco Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura nolascensis) enters the Red List in 2012 as Vulnerable. It is found only on the island of San Pedro Nolasco, Sonora, Mexico, which is approximately 3 km².  The population size is unknown but thought to be less than 2,500 animals due to its restricted distribution. The main threats to this iguana are severe weather and climate change, causing habitat shifts, drought, extreme temperature, and hurricanes. High temperatures are particularly harmful to eggs and hatchlings. Photo © Scott Trageser, NatureStills.com

Black-chested Spiny-tailed Iguana_Ctenosaura melanosterna

The Black-chested Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura melanosterna) is known only from the Valle de Aguán in northern Honduras and the Cayos Cochinos Archipelago off the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Adult iguanas and eggs are sought for both immediate consumption and sale. In Olanchito, the consumption of these iguanas is culturally significant and celebrated in a festival. Illegal exportation for the international pet trade has also been documented. However, the primary threat to this species is habitat destruction and fragmentation. Additionally, feral dogs, cats and rats are predators of iguanas and their eggs. This species has been assessed as Endangered. Photo © Jonne Seijdel

King Cobra_Ophiophagus hannah

The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. It remains common in good habitat in Thailand, where it is a protected species, but is not frequently encountered anywhere else within its wide range. A population reduction of 30% over 75 years in India has been inferred from the many threats to this species, including habitat destruction and the harvesting of mature individuals from the wild. In various parts of its range, this species is harvested for skin, food, medicinal purposes, and the pet trade. As the world's largest venomous snake, it also suffers from high levels of persecution throughout its range. The King Cobra was previously assessed as Vulnerable, and it retains its Vulnerable status on the 2012 Red List. Photo © Bo Jonsson/Skansen-Akvariet

Ruby-eyed Green Pit Viper_Cryptelytrops rubeus

Described in 2011, the Ruby-eyed Green Pit Viper (Cryptelytrops rubeus) enters the Red List as Vulnerable. It is found in southern Viet Nam and eastern Cambodia. This viper has only been found in evergreen forest, and Cambodian sites are at risk from the development of rubber and cassava plantations, despite nominal protected status. There may be localized declines from exploitation for food and snake wine, however this is only a threat in southern Viet Nam. As a venomous snake, this species is subject to persecution by humans and may be at greater risk in degraded, more accessible habitats. Photo © Eduard Galoyan

Burmese Python_Python bivittatus

The Burmese Python (Python bivittatus) is native to southeast Asia, where it occurs from India through Nepal to Indonesia and China. This snake has declined across its native range as a result of harvesting for its skin, traditional medicine and the pet trade. In addition to over-harvesting, habitat degradation is a problem for this species. However, outside its native range this is an invasive species that is firmly established in southern Florida, USA, and poses a threat to the ecosystem there by consuming native wildlife. The Burmese Python has been assessed as Vulnerable. Photo © Mark Auliya


Adenomus kandianus

The Sri Lankan toad species Adenomus kandianus was until recently known only from one late 19th Century record, and the lack of further sightings led to this species being labelled as Extinct. However, in 2009 this species was rediscovered in cloud forest in the Peak Wilderness Sanctuary in Central Province, Sri Lanka. While it is possible that this toad has a more widespread occurrence, it is so far only known from a single site in an area of 200 m². There is a continuing decline of its natural habitat in this area due to illegal gem mining, conversion of forest to tea plantations, and pollution from a very high volume of religious pilgrimage. This species has therefore been assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © L. J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

Holdridges Toad_Incilius holdridgei

Holdridge’s Toad (Incilius holdridgei) was once common in appropriate habitat (with 2,765 males seen visiting two pools in an eight-day period in 1975) but in 2008 it was declared Extinct, having not been seen since 1986 despite intensive searches. This Costa Rican endemic was then rediscovered in 2009 at two nearby sites – adults, juveniles, and tadpoles were all present but extensive searching has revealed less than five adult toads, suggesting a total population of fewer than 50 adults. This species is therefore assessed as Critically Endangered. Although it has not been proven, the main cause of the population decline is thought to be chytridiomycosis, perhaps in combination with the effects of climate change. Photo © Wayne Van Devender

Pristimantis lassoalcalai

The Near Threatened Pristimantis lassoalcalai, a frog from Venezuela, is only known from 50km² of submontane evergreen forest in Cerro Las Antenas. There are currently no major threats to this species or its habitat at the high elevations at which it is found, but at lower altitudes habitat is being rapidly destroyed by extensive cultivation, infrastructure construction, and tourism developments. If these threats expanded to the unprotected higher elevations, this species would immediately qualify for the highest level of threat. Photo © Pablo Velozo Delgado, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)

Hula Painted Frog_Latonia nigriventer

Previously thought to be extinct, the Hula Painted Frog (Latonia nigriventer) of Israel was rediscovered in 2011. The Huleh marshes were drained in the 1950s in an attempt to both eradicate malaria and to make the land suitable for agricultural use. The remaining wetland (5% of the original area) was set aside as the Hula Nature Reserve in 1964. The reserve is well-managed but functions as a refuge for many water birds; predation by birds is thought to be a real threat to the small population of this frog. In addition, most of the surrounding area is cultivated. This frog is now listed as Critically Endangered. Surveys are currently underway to determine if it may occur elsewhere in the Hula Valley. Photo © Oz Rittner, TAU - Zoological Museum, Steinhardt National Collections of Natural History, Israel

Fantastic Poison Frog_Ranitomeya fantastica

The Fantastic Poison Frog (Ranitomeya fantastica) of northern Peru has been reassessed due to a taxonomic change. The concept previously referred to as Ranitomeya fantastica was listed as Least Concern, but more recent research showed this to be a complex of three closely related species. The new concept of Ranitomeya fantastica is found in a reduced area, and appears to be rare or uncommonly found within its range. It is threatened by habitat loss and the international pet trade, and has been assessed as Near Threatened. Photo © Timothy D. Paine

Confusing Green Bushfrog_Raorchestes chromasynchysi

The Confusing Green Bushfrog (Raorchestes chromasynchysi) is listed as Vulnerable. It is found in the Western Ghats of India, where it occurs in medium- to high-altitude evergreen forest. Its population is considered to be severely fragmented, with over half of the known population found in small isolated habitat patches separated by large distances. The major threat to this species is habitat loss due to small and large-scale plantations, largely coffee crops, as well as ecotourism due to noise disturbance: this species' chorus call pattern is severely affected by road traffic noise. Photo © K P Dinesh


Lined Surgeonfish_Acanthurus lineatus

Many fish species from the family Acanthuridae are highly sought after for the aquarium trade due to their attractive colouration, and the Lined Surgeonfish (Acanthurus lineatus) is no exception. In addition, it is an important targeted fish in subsistence and commercial fisheries. Densities of this species are considerably lower outside of marine reserves and in areas of high exploitation, but data have shown a decline in fishing effort resulting in constant catch landings and catch-per-unit effort. It is widespread throughout the Indo-Pacific region, common and locally abundant, and is assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Robert F. Myers, http://seaclicks.com

Jewelled Tang_Zebrasoma gemmatum

Newly assessed as Data Deficient, the Jewelled Tang (Zebrasoma gemmatum) is rare and inhabits deeper waters. It is harvested for the aquarium trade and due to its rarity fetches a very high price online. There is very little information available on its biology, population trends, the rates of harvest, or other threats. It has therefore not been possible to ascertain whether it meets any of the Criteria for listing as a threatened species. Photo © John E. Randall

Rainbow Parrotfish_Scarus guacamaia

The Rainbow Parrotfish (Scarus guacamaia) is the largest parrotfish in the Atlantic, reaching a maximum size in excess of 100 cm. It is harvested for food and is an important component of subsistence and commercial fisheries in many parts of the Caribbean. This Near Threatened parrotfish is naturally rare, achieving high densities only in areas that are protected from exploitation and habitat degradation, and its preference for shallow waters makes it particularly susceptible to overfishing. Photo © Kevin Bryant, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Spiny Seahorse_Hippocampus histrix

Widespread but relatively rare throughout the Indo-Pacific, the Spiny Seahorse (Hippocampus histrix), previously Data Deficient, has been reassessed as Vulnerable. A population decline of at least 30% over the last 10–15 years is suspected, and these declines are expected to continue into the future. As well as targeted fishing for the aquarium and traditional medicine trades, there are also concerns about habitat destruction and capture of seahorses as bycatch throughout the species’ range. Photo © Nick Hobgood, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en

Speckled Goby_Redigobius bikolanus

At present, the Speckled Goby (Redigobius bikolanus) appears to have stable populations in suitable habitat and can be locally common. It is found in fresh and brackish waters throughout much of Oceania. There are currently no known major threats, but potential threats include damage to coastal rivers and mangrove habitats through habitat degradation and destruction. It is assessed as Least Concern, but further taxonomic work is required as there is a possibility that there are cryptic species within this species. Photo © Taro Seo, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.ca

Crocodile Catfish_Bagarius suchus

A southest Asian freshwater fish, the Crocodile Catfish (Bagarius suchus) is listed as Near Threatened. There is no information on population size or trends available across the species' entire range; however, one study showed that this migratory species had declined as a result of the construction of the Pak Mun dam in Thailand. It is considered likely that the Crocodile Catfish population has been and continues to be impacted by the construction of dams on the Mekong. In addition, the species is a highly valued and significant food fish throughout the region. Juveniles and subadults have also been caught and exported as ornamental fish. Photo © Enrico Richter

Mekong Herring_Tenualosa thibaudeaui

The Mekong Herring (Tenualosa thibaudeaui) is endemic to the Mekong basin, in Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia. Population decline is thought to have reached 30% over the last 10-15 years, and this fish is assessed as Vulnerable. This fish has a high economic value and is heavily fished throughout its range. Its main threats are overfishing and degradation of habitats due to developments such as dams. Fishery management is needed throughout its range, along with research into the impacts of current and proposed dams on migration routes. Photo © Zeb Hogan

Brown Whipray_Himantura toshi

The Brown Whipray (Himantura toshi) is endemic to subtropical and tropical northern and eastern Australia. It appears to mainly occur in shallow inshore habitats, and is most commonly reported from mangrove flats and muddy substrates. In eastern Australia its preferred habitats have been considerably degraded in urban areas. There is concern that this habitat degradation and their capture as bycatch are threats to this species. However, it remains common in the urbanized Moreton Bay area and the majority of its habitat across eastern and northern Australia is not heavily urbanized. It is therefore currently assessed as Least Concern. Photo © Michael Heithaus, Florida International University

Leopard Whipray_Himantura leoparda

Described in 2008, the Leopard Whipray (Himantura leoparda) enters the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable. There is no species-specific information about populations or trends for the Leopard Whipray, however in a large part of its range there is heavy fishing pressure and extensive habitat degradation and it is suspected that significant population declines have occurred and are ongoing. The Leopard Whipray may be more vulnerable than some other related species due to its large size at maturity and its preference for inshore coastal waters where these threats are more intense. Photo © Joe Wu, "Himantura leoparda farglory.jpg" via Wikimedia Commons. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Pacific Seahorse_Hippocampus ingens

The Pacific Seahorse (Hippocampus ingens) has been assessed on the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable. It is widely distributed in the Eastern Pacific region, but is considered rare throughout its range and its population is continuing to decline. It is of commercial importance for the international aquarium trade, the traditional medicinal trades and as curios. It is also often caught as by-catch in shrimp fisheries. This seahorse may be particularly susceptible degradation of habitat because it inhabits relatively shallow areas. Photo © Dave Harasti, www.daveharasti.com


Melitta tomentosa

Melitta tomentosa, a bee from Istria (a peninsula comprising parts of Croatia, Slovenia, and Italy) has been assessed as part of an ongoing project on the status of European pollinator species. This species has been listed as Data Deficient in view of the lack of information about its population size, trend and threats. However, it has a very restricted distribution and appears to be rare, and could qualify for a threatened category if relevant data are found. Photo © Andrej Gogala

Moorean Viviparous Tree Snail_Samoana diaphana

Known only from Moorea and Tahiti in French Polynesia, the Moorean Viviparous Tree Snail (Samoana diaphana) has been assessed as Endangered. The main threat to this species is from the introduced Rosy Wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), a predatory land snail which has extirpated most valley populations of partulid snails since its introduction to the islands in the 1970s. This predator extends to an altitude of at least 1400m into the montane forest, and it is not clear to what extent higher elevation populations of native snails such as the Moorean Viviparous Tree Snails are at risk. Photo © Trevor Coote

Gomera Green Bush-cricket_Calliphona alluaudi

The Gomera Green Bush-cricket (Calliphona gomerensis) is endemic to La Gomera, in the Canary Islands, where it occurs mainly in laurel forest. Although its habitats are still common on La Gomera, these forests are threatened by an increasing frequency of fires. No specific conservation measures for this bush-cricket are in place, but parts of the population occur in protected areas. It has been assessed as Endangered. Photo © Wolfgang Wagner

Purpurarian Stick Grasshopper_Purpuraria erna

The Purpurarian Stick Grasshopper (Purpuraria erna) only occurs on three of the Canary Islands – Fuerteventura, Isla de los Lobos, and Lanzarote. It feeds exclusively on Euphorbia scrubs which are threatened by urban development (mainly in coastal areas) and goat-grazing. Its limited distribution and continuing decline in habitat extent and quality qualify this species for listing as Endangered. Photo © Thorsten Stegmann

Giant Australian Cuttlefish_Sepia apama

The Giant Australian Cuttlefish (Sepia apama) is a Near Threatened species which is heavily affected by fishing in parts of its range. Additionally, ocean acidification - caused by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - is a threat to all cuttlefish species. Further research is needed to determine the population trends, distribution, life history traits and threats impacting this species. Photo © Roger T. Hanlon

Hihiwai_Neritina granosa

The Hihiwai (Neritina granosa) is a large Hawaiian snail and is an important food item for native Hawaiians. A variety of threats have caused past declines in this species, including impoundment, water diversion, changes in stream flow, urbanization, and habitat alteration or shading brought about by non-native riparian vegetation. Further potential threats include siltation via erosion of disturbed watersheds, pollution of surface or groundwater, and introduction of invasive species that may predate on or compete with native species. This snail is assessed as Vulnerable. Photo © Joel Wooster

Conus mercator

Conus mercator, a species of cone snail, is endemic to a small part of the Senegal coast. The whole of the adjacent land is highly developed and industrialized with associated problems including pollution, which is the main threat to this Endangered cone snail. The species is abundant within its range but there has been some decline noted in the sizes of the individuals taken over the last 15 years. The species is collected locally by subsistence collectors for the shell trade, and is currently over-collected around Dakar. The shells may be gathered for the local tourist market and by tourists visiting the country. Photo © Alan J Kohn


Mount Barney Bush Pea_Pultenaea whiteana

Found only on Mt. Maroon and Mt. Barney in Queensland, Australia, the Mount Barney Bush Pea (Pultenaea whiteana) has been assessed as Vulnerable. The population of this small shrub, which grows at high altitude in heathlands and forests, contains fewer than 1,000 individuals. There are threats to the area including changes in fire regimes, habitat degradation through increased tourism, changes in habitat due to introduced species and impact from climate change, and soil erosion, but it is not clear whether any or all of these threats are significantly affecting this species. Photo © Glenn Leiper

Kennedia retrorsa

Kennedia retrorsa is endemic to New South Wales, Australia. It is listed as Critically Endangered in view of its highly restricted distribution in eucalypt woodland and riparian zones of the Gouldburn River National Park – its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both ~20 km². Fire is the main threat to the species and the extent of the largest fire in the Gouldburn area was 240 km². The majority of the currently known population is reproductively immature and fire has the potential to destroy reproductively immature plants and thus lead to localized extinctions. Fire intervals of less than ten to fifteen years are likely to result in subpopulation declines, and fire intervals of less than three to four years are likely to result in the extinction of this species. Photo © Tony Rodd, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/

Ravenea delicatula

Known only from a single location in northestern Madagascar, in an area estimated to be less than 6 km², Ravenea delicatula is severely threatened by habitat loss. The forest fragment where this palm grows is not protected, and is being destroyed because the local population are clearing the forest to cultivate hill rice. Moreover, numerous finds of rubies have been made nearby, leading to an additional threat of habitat destruction through mining. Only 30 mature trees are known to remain, and this species is therefore Critically Endangered. Photo © Mijoro Rakotoarinivo

Manara_Ravenea lakatra

Estimated to have a population of only 30 mature trees, the Manara (Ravenea lakatra) has been uplisted from Endangered to Critically Endangered following a genuine deterioration in its status. This east Madagascan palm is threatened by habitat loss through clearance for shifting agriculture and logging. In addition, the leaves are harvested and used for weaving hats and other handicrafts, and excessive harvesting impacts the reproductive output of the species. Photo © H Beentje, RBG Kew

Dypsis mcdonaldiana

Dypsis mcdonaldiana is endemic to southern Madagascar, with an extent of occurrence less than 4000 km² and an area of occupancy less than 500 km². The status of this palm has deteriorated, and it has been uplisted to Endangered (previously Vulnerable). Threats include loss of habitat due to logging, clearance for shifting agriculture, and ilmenite mining. Although it is present in a protected area, further habitat protection and management is needed to conserve this species. Photo © J Dransfield, RBG Kew

Common Soapwort_Saponaria officinalis

Common Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) is a plant with medicinal properties which is native to Europe and temperate Asia. It has been assessed as Least Concern in its European range, due to its widespread distribution, stable populations and lack of major threats. Soapwort has long been used in the European countryside as a soap substitute as the leaves produce a lather when rubbed in water. In addition, a decoction of the roots in combination with other herbs is used widely as a poultice to remove discolouration around black or bruised eyes; it has expectorant properties; and a decoction of the whole plant can be applied externally to treat itchy skin. Photo © S H Free Photos, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en_GB

Wild Pansy_Viola tricolor

Wild Pansy or Heart’s-Ease (Viola tricolor) has a long history of herbal use and was once reputed for being a treatment for epilepsy, asthma, skin diseases and a wide range of other complaints. It is used in traditional herbal medicinal products for symptomatic treatment of mild seborrhoeic skin conditions and is administered as a comminuted herbal substance as herbal tea for oral use or for infusion preparation for cutaneous use. This species is native to temperate Asia (Iran, Turkey, Russian Federation) and Europe, and has been assessed as Least Concern in Europe due being widespread with stable populations in the majority of its range and no major threats. Photo © Anne Tanne, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/deed.en_GB

Ladys Slipper_Calceolaria fothergillii

Lady’s Slipper (Calceolaria fothergillii) is endemic to the Falkland Islands, where it is widespread but occasional. Grazing is the main threat to this species. Where grazing pressure is removed, this species can become common across a broad range of sites, but where grazing pressure is high, it is largely restricted to coastal cliff and slope and upland sites. It is likely that grazing pressures have reduced the distribution and population of this species, but it currently seems to be stable. It has been assessed as Least Concern, but ongoing monitoring is required. Photo © Mike Morrison

Moores Plantain_Plantago moorei

With a severely restricted range in the extreme southwest of the Falkland Islands archipelago, Moore’s Plantain (Plantago moorei) has been assessed as Endangered. At present the major threats to this species are the invasive plant species Mouse-ear Hawkweed (Pilosella officinarum), livestock trampling, climate change, accidental fires (caused by people or lightning strikes) and storms which could rapidly accelerate the current rate of coastal erosion. This species needs legal protection at the national level, and continued awareness-raising about this and other threatened Falkland species is also required. Photo © Rebecca Upson

Montserrat Orchid_Epidendrum montserratense

The Montserrat Orchid (Epidendrum montserratense) is an island endemic with a very limited distribution. Loss and fragmentation of habitat due to human development and volcanic activity are the main threats. There is also loss of host plants and mature individuals of this species due to uncontrolled grazing (mostly by goats). The Montserrat Orchid has been assessed as Critically Endangered, and a species action plan is being developed. Photo © Martin Hamilton

Candy Cane Ginger_Curcuma rhabdota

Occurring in Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia, the Candy Cane Ginger (Curcuma rhabdota) grows near streams in deciduous and semi-deciduous forest. Habitat degradation through agricultural expansion and over-collection of rhizomes from the wild populations are the two main threats to this eye-catching species. It is sold at markets as an ornamental and exported to various international markets. From market sales, it appears that this species is heavily exploited at present, but it is difficult to determine the current rate of population reduction. In Lao PDR it is known to occur in Phou Xiang Thong National Protected Area. Further surveys and monitoring is required as this Vulnerable species could well warrant a higher listing. Photo © Jana Leong-Skornickova

Tsao-ko Cardamom_Amomum tsao-ko

A Near Threatened cardamom species, the Tsao-ko Cardamom (Amomum tsao-ko) is found southern China, northern Lao PDR, and northern Viet Nam. It is cultivated in parts of its range. Wild and cultivated fruits are harvested for food and medicinal purposes. The main threat to this species is over-collection of the fruits and possible long-term genetic or reduced reproductive success issues, as well as possible inbreeding issues between the wild and cultivated plants. However, at present there is no evidence for a continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals. Photo © Huu Dang Tran