Glossary

Authority : The taxonomic authority is the name of the person or people who published the original description for a particular scientific name, followed by the year of publication. If the name is in parentheses, this indicates that the genus name now used is different from the one used in the original description.

Biogeographic Realms: The major biogeogeographic regions in which a species occurs. Values include: Australasia; Afrotropical; Indomalayan; Nearctic; Neotropical; Oceanic; and Palearctic. For a definition, see Udvardy, M.D.F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper No. 18. Morges, Switzerland.

Biomes: Whether the species occurs in terrestrial, marine and/or freshwater habitats.

Common Name: The common name of a species is the vernacular name used to refer to a species. Some species have several common names, often in different languages.

Conservation Measures: Standard terms used to describe the conservation actions required for a species. The classification scheme with all of the terms can be found at http://www.redlist.org/info/conservation_actions.html.

CR: IUCN Red List Categories, Critically Endangered: A taxon is Critically Endangered when the best available evidence (severe population decline, very small population, very small geographic area occupied, or if the calculated probability of extinction during the next 10 years of >50%) indicates that it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

Date of Assessment : Date when the IUCN Red List assessment was completed.

DD: IUCN Red List Categories, Data Deficient: A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution are lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

EN: IUCN Red List Categories, Endangered: A taxon is Endangered when the best available evidence (large population decline, small population, small geographic area occupied, or if the calculated probability of extinction during the next 20 years is >20%) indicates that it is considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

English Common Name: The common name of a species is the vernacular name used to refer to a species. Some species have several common names, often in different languages. Where possible, a single name is selected as the primary name.

EW: IUCN Red List Categories, Extinct in the Wild: A taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed Extinct in the Wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

EX: IUCN Red List Categories, Extinct: A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. A taxon is presumed Extinct when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times, throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

Family: A Family is a level in the taxonomic hierarchy below Order, but above Genus.

Genus: Taxonomic Genus.

GIS: Geographic Information System.

Habitat Name: Standard terms used to describe the major habitat/s in which the species occurs. The classification scheme with all of the terms can be found at http://www.redlist.org/info/major_habitats.html.

In Place: Specifies whether the conservation action recommended is already occurring (In Place) or requires implementation (Needed).

Introduced: Introduced species are those occurring outside their natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. outside the range they occupy naturally or could not occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans).

IUCN Red List Assessor(s): The individuals who provided input into the assessment for a particular species. These scientists do not necessarily endorse the final IUCN Red List Category assigned to the species.

IUCN Red List Category Rationale: Justification for the listing including any numerical data used, or inferences made, that relate to the thresholds in the criteria.

IUCN Red List Category: Code for the Threatened Status of a species determined using the 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. Values include: EX = Extinct, EW = Extinct in the Wild, CR = Critically Endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable, NT = Near Threatened, LC = Least Concern, DD = Data Deficient.

IUCN Red List Criteria: Codes referring to the specific IUCN Red List Criteria that apply to the species and justify its inclusion in its assigned IUCN Red List Category. Only the criteria which were met for the highest category to which the species can be assigned are specified. For an explanation of the codes, see 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

IUCN Red List Evaluators: The Evaluators check that all of the necessary supporting documentation for a species has been completed and that the IUCN Red List category that has been assigned is appropriate considering the data provided. It is the Evaluators that take the responsibility for assigning IUCN Red List categories.

Kingdom: Taxonomic Kingdom.

LC: IUCN Red List Categories, Least Concern: A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

Native: Native species are those currently occurring within their natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range they occupy naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans).

Needed: Specifies whether the conservation action recommended is already occurring (In Place) or requires implementation (Needed).

Notes on Red Listing: Any further explanatory text needed to justify the IUCN Red List assessment of the species.

NT: IUCN Red List Categories, Near Threatened: A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.

Order : An Order is a level in the taxonomic hierarchy below Class, but above Family.

Population Trend: This is an indication of the current population trend of the species. Values include: increasing; decreasing; stable; and unknown.

Population : This is usually a subjective assessment of abundance; population numbers are given where available.

Range Comments : General information on the geographic distribution of the species, including elevation if known, origin (for example native or introduced), and type locality if a restricted range species.

Reintroduced : Reintroduced species are those that have been successfully established by humans in an area that was once part of their historic range, but from which they had been extirpated or become extinct.

Scientific Name : The scientific name for a mammal, the first word being the name of the genus, and the second word being the name of the species. The IUCN Red List uses the 3rd edition of Mammal Species of the World – A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference as its default mammal taxonomy, and only departs from this in well-justified circumstances.

Wilson, D.E., Reeder, D.A. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edn (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, 2005).

Specific Threats : Standard terms used to describe the major threats to the species. The classification scheme with all of the terms can be found at http://www.redlist.org/info/major_threats.html.

Taxonomic Comments : Pertinent information regarding questions or controversies concerning the validity, taxonomic distinctness, or generic placement of the species. It may also provide information about the scientific name or its spelling. It may include discussion of differing taxonomic or nomenclatural usage by various experts.

Threat Information : A discussion of the threatening processes impacting the species in the past, present or future.

Type of Use : Information on six aspects of utilization: a) the purpose for which a species is being utilized (for example, for food, medicine or the pet trade); the primary forms removed from the wild (for example adult animals, tusks, antlers etc); the source of specimens in commercial trade (for example wild, captive, ranched, etc); the trend in the level of wild harvest in relation to population numbers; the trend in the amount of harvest from non-wild sources; and the list of the species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) - see http://www.cites.org/.

VU: IUCN Red List Categories, Vulnerable: A taxon is Vulnerable when the best available evidence (large population decline, small population, small geographic area occupied, or if the calculated probability of extinction during the next 20 years is at least 10%) indicates that it is considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. See 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1.