Summary of Key Findings

The mammal data on the 2008 IUCN Red List includes 5,488 species, 412 subspecies and 21 subpopulations. The primary focus of the current assessment was at the species level, and all species assessments are complete including all supporting documentation. For subspecies and subpopulations only the systematic information and the IUCN Red List assessment sections were completed. All other information relevant at the subspecies level such as distribution and population, were incorporated in the relevant species level assessment. Therefore in the analyses of the mammal data presented here only species level data is used.

One species is excluded from the analyses, namely Homo sapiens.

The key findings of the 2008 IUCN Red List mammal species data are presented here and the individual species accounts are included in the online searchable database. Over 1,700 experts from all over the world have so far contributed to the assessment.

Among the key findings in 2008 are:

  • Nearly one-quarter (22 %) of the world's mammal species are known to be globally threatened or extinct, 63 % are known to not be threatened, and 15 % have insufficient data to determine their threat status.
  • There are 76 mammals considered to have gone Extinct since 1500, and two are Extinct in the Wild.
  • The most diverse country for mammals is Indonesia (670), followed closely by Brazil (648). China (551) and Mexico (523) are the only other two other countries with more than 500 species.
  • The country with by far the most threatened species is Indonesia (184). Mexico is the only other country in triple figures with 100 threatened species. Half of the top 20 countries for numbers of threatened species are in Asia; for example, India (96), China (74) and Malaysia (70). However, the highest levels of threat are found in island nations, and in particular the top three are islands or island groups in the Indian Ocean: Mauritius (64 %), Réunion (43 %) and the Seychelles (39 %).
  • Habitat loss, affecting over 2,000 mammal species, is the greatest threat globally. The second greatest threat is utilization which is affecting over 900 mammal species, mainly those in Asia.

Threatened species worldwide Threatened species worldwide - Legend

Further details on the results of the 2008 mammal species data are presented through the following links, including numerous charts, maps, and tables.

IUCN Red List Status


Geographic Patterns


Major Threats


Habitat Preferences