Photograph Information

Photos on the Pan-Africa Page

The Diversity of Life in African Freshwaters: Under Water, Under Threat

The Diversity of Life in African Freshwaters: Under Water, Under Threat

Photos on the Eastern Africa Page

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Eastern Africa

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Eastern Africa

Photos on the Central Africa Page

The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in central Africa

The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in central Africa.

Photos on the Northern Africa Page

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Northern Africa

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Northern Africa

Photos on the Southern Africa Page

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Southern Africa

The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Southern Africa

Photos on the Western Africa Page

The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in western Africa

The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in western Africa

Photos on the Assessment Process Page

Aethriamanta rezia © Jens Kipping

Aethriamanta rezia is found in pools, slow streams and rivers, and lake shores with dense aquatic vegetation.It is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is listed as Least Concern. © Jens Kipping

Photos on the Summary of Key Findings Page

Collection of water lillies for human consumption © SAIAB/Roger Bills

Collection of water lillies for human consumption in southern Africa. Photo © SAIAB/Roger Bills

Photos on the Summary of Key Findings Page

Children washing clothes in a stream in Cameroon © Kevin Smith

Children washing clothes in a stream in Cameroon © Kevin Smith

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

 Afrithelphusa monodosa  © Piotr Naskrecki

The Purple Marsh Crab Afrithelphusa monodosa is endemic to Guinea. Despite the recent discovery of a new population of this species, it is still currently known from only a few specimens and from only two localities in Guinea. There is a likely trend towards declining numbers due to increased habitat destruction relating to expanding human populations and more intensive agriculture in northwest Guinea, and it is currently listed as Critically Endangered. © Piotr Naskrecki

Photos on the Major Threats Page

Akosombo dam © Kevin Smith

Akosombo dam © Kevin Smith

Mining activities at Ghana’s Atewa Forest Reserve © K.-D.B. Dijkstra

Mining activities at Ghana’s Atewa Forest Reserve. Photo © K.-D.B. Dijkstra

Photos on the Acknowledgements Page

Participants of the training workshop, Dakar, Senegal © Caroline Pollock.

Participants of the training workshop, Dakar, Senegal. Photo © Caroline Pollock.

Photos on the Summary of Key Findings Page

Tilapia gutturosa © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Tilapia gutturosa is endemic to the crater Lake Bermin, Cameroon. It is threatened by the oil plantations and slash and burn agriculture leading to sedimentation and pollution in the lake. There is also a potential threat from the lake 'burping'  CO2, which could kill all the fish in the lake in one go. It is assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

 

Photos on the Assessment Methods Page

Chromidotilapia guntheri loenbergi © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Chromidotilapia guntheri loenbergi is endemic to the crater Lake Brombi Mbo (7 km²) in Cameroon. It is majorly threatened by oil plantations and slash and burn agriculture leading to sedimentation and pollution in the lake. There is also a potential threat from the lake 'burping'  CO2, which could kill all the fish in the lake in one go. It is assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Photos on the Summary of Key Findings Page

Myriophyllum spicatum © Serge Müler

Myriophyllum spicatum is a very common invasive aquatic macrophyte. It is found throughout the northern hemisphere, and within Africa it is assessed as Least ConcernRG. Photo © Serge Müler

Photos on the Description of Data Page

Stomatepia pindu © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Stomatepia pindu is endemic to the crater Lake Brombi Mbo (7 km²) in Cameroon. It is majorly threatened by oil plantations and slash and burn agriculture leading to sedimentation and pollution in the lake. There is also a potential threat from the lake 'burping'  CO2, which could kill all the fish in the lake in one go. It is assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Photos on the Citation and Photos Page

Tilapia busumana © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Known from Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, populations of Tilapia busumana are currently declining as deforestation and poor agricultural practices cause increases in sediment loads and leaching of pesticides and agrochemicals into the waterways.  Aquatic weeds and effluents from mining activities further threaten this Vulnerable species, as does pollution from inadequately treated human waste and domestic discharges from expanding residential developments. A conservation policy has been put in place in Ghana; habitat restoration and monitoring of population trends and threats would further benefit this species. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Photos on the Geographic Patterns Page

Oreochromis karongae © Prof. George F. Turner

Oreochromis karongae is one of three “Chambo” species endemic to Lake Malawi, Lake Malombe and the Shire River in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. These species are the most valuable food fishes in Malawi, but overfishing has had serious impacts; population declines of more than 70% in the past ten years have led to a listing as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. The Chambo stocks in Lake Malombe are considered to have been in a state of near collapse since the early 1990s. Monitoring of population trends, harvest management and education are needed to maintain viable populations. Photo © Prof. George F. Turner

Photos on the Pan-Africa Page

Ischnura evansi © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Evans' Bluetail (Ischnura evansi) ranges from Central Asia through the Middle East to the Libyan desert in the west. It has also been recorded from Legrand in a lake on the border with Ethiopia and Djibouti. It is present in Egypt (Siwa oasis area, where the records are relatively clustered). The species habitat (salt marshes and swampy areas) are common, and it is likely that the species is more widespread. It is assesses as Least ConcernRG within Africa. Photo © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Photos on the Data Types Page

Eryngium atlanticum © Laila Rhazi

Panicaut Atlantique (Eryngium atlanticum) is endemic to Western Morocco, where it inhabits temporary pools on sandy ground. Wetland reclamation has led to the disappearance of numerous pools from the Atlantic plains, causing a decline in the population size of this species. Currently listed as Near Threatened, it could be uplisted to a threatened category if more locations are lost in the future. Photo © Laila Rhazi

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Romulea multisulcata © Nick Helme

Romulea multisulcata is described from seasonal pools on the Bokkeveld Mountains near Nieuwoudtville in the Northern Cape Province but known also from the foot of the nearby Gifberg-Matsikamma massif, in the Western Cape, and from the coastal flats near Hondeklip Bay in central Namaqualand. The vernal pool habitat of this delicate plant is being degraded by trampling and grazing by stock animals and agriculture, and it is currently listed as Vulnerable. Photo © Nick Helme

Photos on the Acknowledgements Page

Lanistes ovum © William Darwall

Lanistes ovum is a widespread and common species known throughout much of tropical Africa. It inhabits various water bodies, standing and flowing, permanent and temporal. It is currently not threatened, but it is sometimes used for animal feed. No conservation measures are in place, nor are any currently needed, for this Least Concern species. Photo © William Darwall

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Aeshna cyanea © Jean-Pierre Boudot

The Blue Hawker (Aeshna cyanea) is a one of the commonest species of the genus in central Europe. It is highly localised in northern Africa, where it is only known from two localities in Algeria. The population is severely fragmented, and major threats to this dragonfly are habitat loss related to livestock and water extraction. Habitat loss through the fire is also an ongoing threat, and within Africa it is assessed as EndangeredRG. Photo © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Photos on the Conclusions and Recommendations Page

Oreochromis esculentus © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Singidia Tilapia (Oreochromis esculentus) is known from within the Lake Victoria drainage and Lake Kanyaboli. It has been introduced into several dams and waters, including the Pangani system (Lake Jipe). It is still present in some of the satellite lakes of Lakes Victoria and Kyoga. This Tilapia has almost been eliminated from its previous range in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga through predation, competitive exclusion and ecological displacement by introduced fishes. It is assessed as Critically Endangered. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Photos on the Summary of Key Findings Page

Platycypha auripes © Viola Clausnitzer

The Golden Dancing-Jewel (Platycypha auripes) is endemic to forest streams of the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. The forests in this area have been largely destroyed for wood extraction and agricultural expansion. The remaining populations are therefore highly fragmented, and it is assessed as Vulnerable. Photo  © Viola Clausnitzer

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Trapa natans © William Darwall

The Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) is an Eurasiatic species, introduced in Africa and North America, where it is locally invasive. It has been argued that the species in not native to Africa, however, as it has been collected from supposedly wild places, it is treated as native. This plant is widespread in Africa and where it occurs it is often abundant, and it is assessed as Least ConcernRG. The species has invasive tendencies, so this could become a problem in the future. Photo © William Darwall

Photos on the Geographic Patterns Page

Platycypha amboniensis © Viola Clausnitzer

The Montane Dancing-Jewel (Platycypha amboniensis) is a Critically Endangered damselfly. It is known only from the montane forest streams of the Aberdare Mountains and Mount Kenya between 1,600 and 2,000 m altitude. The forests have been largely cleared in these altitudes and only fragmented and small secondary forest pockets are left below 2,000 m. Though these are protected as forest reserves, illegal activities as logging, charcoal burning and even clear cutting are common and urgent conservation measures are necessary. Photo © Viola Clausnitzer

Photos on the Acknowledgements Page

Freshwater Clams © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Clam species of the Malebo Pool, on the border between DRC and Congo. Photo © Oliver Lucanus/Belowwater.com

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Pseudagrion kaffinum © Viola Claustnitzer

Pseudagrion kaffinum is known only from is only known from five localities in Ethiopia's southwestern highlands, but is assumed to occur on more localities. Nevertheless the Ethiopian highlands have experienced and still experience a drastic degradation of the environment due to the increase of population, and agricultural pollution and siltation of wetlands. It is currently assessed as Vulnerable. Photo © Viola Claustnitzer

Photos on the Northeastern Africa Page

Zygonyx torridus © Jean-Pierre Boudot

The Ringed Cascader (Zygonyx torridus) is widespread in Africa, where it is assessed as Least ConcernRG, as well as southern Europe, Middle East, and southern Asia. It is found in streams and rivers in bush, savannah, woodland and thin forest, often above or near rapids. Photo © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Potamonautes lividus © Winks Emmerson

The Blue River Crab (Potamonautes lividus) is endemic to swamp forests in northeastern Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa. Long-term expansion of housing and urban areas and abstraction of ground water is causing habitat loss and degradation throughout its range, which has resulted in the species being listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. The Blue River Crab is found in three protected areas. Research into its population size and trends, life history, threats and potential conservation actions is required in order to identify specific conservation measures to protect this species. Photo © Winks Emmerson

Photos on the Conclusions and Recommendations Page

Oxalis natans © Erwin Sieben

Oxalis natans is only known from two sites; Stellenbosch (Chelchim farm) and Elandsberg Private Nature Reserve in South Africa. Of the two remaining sites, one is experiencing habitat decline and is showing a significant decline in ability to set seed. More than 90% of previous locations are no longer extant, and this plant is now Critically Endangered. Photo © Erwin Sieben

Photos on the Acknowledgements Page

Neurogomphus zambeziensis © Jens Kipping

The Zambezi Siphontail (Neurogomphus zambeziensis) can be found alongside rivers in bush, woodland and savannah. This dragonfly has a relatively wide distribution, occurring in river catchments of the Zambezi and Limpopo, and is assessed as Least Concern. Its range may extend into Tanzania, but this needs to be confirmed with more surveys. Photo © Jens Kipping

Photos on the Glossary Page

Orthetrum ransonneti © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Within Africa, Ransonnet's Skimmer (Orthetrum ransonneti) is found from central Algeria to Egypt and Sudan, and is regionally Least ConcernRG. It is a desert species, and its range extends to Israel, Iran and Afghanistan. Photo © Jean-Pierre Boudot

Photos on the Limitations of the Data Page

Cadiscus aquaticus © Nick Helme

Cadiscus aquaticus is a South African aquatic plant that occurs in temporary pools. It has only been recorded from nine places in the Western Cape, but it no longer occurs in least four of these sites. Grazing and trampling by cattle and horses is the most likely cause of this plant disappearing from many of its historic localities. Infilling of wetlands and damage by heavy machinery are also threatening the future survival of this Critically Endangered species. Photo © Nick Helme

Chichaya pond in Numidia, Algeria © Gérard de Bélair

Chichaya pond in Numidia, Algeria. Photo © Gérard de Bélair

Photos on the Major Threats Page

Water extraction in Siwa, Egypt © Kevin Smith

Water extraction in Siwa, Egypt. Photo © Kevin Smith

Woman washing clothes in Morocco © Laila Rhazi

Woman washing clothes in Morocco. Photo © Laila Rhazi

Team of malacologists in Morocco © Ghamizi

Team of malacologists in Morocco. Photo © Ghamizi

Freshwater training workshop in Rabat, Morocco © Kevin Smith

Freshwater training workshop in Rabat, Morocco. Photo © Kevin Smith

Okavango Delta © Jens Kipping

Okavango Delta. Photo © Jens Kipping

Photos on the Major Threats Page

Restored stream in Table Mountain, South Africa © Michael Samways

Restored stream in Table Mountain, South Africa. Photo © Michael Samways

Photos on the Geographic Patterns Page

Paragomphus sinaiticus © Bob Reimer

Paragomphus sinaiticus is a poorly known dragonfly, which has been reported from Niger, Sudan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. The Sinai populations are expected to be extinct due to recent human expansion, water management and increased drought. It lives exclusively in the subdesertic Sahelian/Sinai/Arabian belt which suffers nowadays from a severe drought and subsequent desertification. Widespread wadis (local streams) drying may be expected, and it is therefore listed as Vulnerable, even without direct human impact. Photo © Bob Reimer

Photos on the Conclusions and Recommendations Page

Freshwater snails (Pila spp.) at a market in Accra, Ghana © Kevin Smith

Freshwater snails (Pila spp.) at a market in Accra, Ghana. Photo © Kevin Smith

Photos on the Geographic Patterns Page

Sudanonautes aubryi, © Jens Kipping

Sudanonautes aubryi, Least Concern, at Nkoelon, a small village just on the western border of the Campo Maan National Park on the border to Equatorial Guinea. Photo © Jens Kipping

Photos on the Acknowledgements Page

Partcipants at the central Africa review workshop held in Cameroon. Photo © David Allen

Partcipants at the central Africa review workshop held in Cameroon. Photo © David Allen

Photos on the IUCN Red List Status Page

Neurogomphus uelensis © K.D. Djikstra

Neurogomphus uelensis, Least Concern, has only been recorded a few times, but scattered over the largely unexplored areas of the Congo. Photo © K.D. Djikstra

Photos on the Major Threats Page

Lungfish for sale, Yaekela, DRC. Photo © K.D. Djikstra

Lungfish for sale, Yaekela, DRC. Photo © K.D. Djikstra

Photos on the Conclusions and Recommendations Page

Fisherman collecting net, Sanaga River, Cameroon. Photo © Kevin Smith

Fisherman collecting net, Sanaga River, Cameroon. Photo © Kevin Smith