Publications

Amphibians

European Red List of Amphibians

Nearly a quarter of European amphibians are threatened with extinction. “Southern Europe is particularly rich in amphibians but climate change and other threats are placing its freshwater habitats under severe stress," says Dr Helen Temple, co-author of the study and Programme Officer for the IUCN Red List Unit.

Click here to download this report (9.1 MB).

Butterflies

Euroepan Red List of Butterflies

 

"The rapid decline of so many species is extremely worrying. They point to a major loss of wildlife and wild habitats across Europe. Far more effort is needed to support the traditional farming systems on which many species depend and protect key areas from development”, says Dr Martin Warren, Chief Executive of Butterfly Conservation and one of the report’s authors.

Click here to download this report (2.69 MB).

Dragonflies and Damselflies

European Red List of Dragonflies

 

“It is likely things will only get worse for these unique species as climate change and increased water demand take their toll,” says Jean Pierre Boudot, member of the IUCN Dragonfly Specialist Group and co-author of the report. “Lower levels of precipitation and drought will lead to degradation of the habitats where the majority of dragonflies and damselflies live.”

Click here to download this report (1.78 MB).

Freshwater Fishes

European Red List of Freshwater Fishes

"Water is often unsustainably abstracted and free flowing rivers are buried under hydropower lakes. Fishes are an agricultural resource which is widely optimized with alien species. Is this the future of Europe's freshwater fishes?" asks Jörg Freyhof, European chair of the IUCN Freshwater Fish Specialist Group and co-author of the report. "This report contributes to a better understanding on why Europe’s hidden biodiversity heritage is being lost. It is time to act now!"

Click here to download this report (3.63 MB).

Mammals

The Status and Distribution of European Mammals


Nearly one in six (15%) of Europe’s 2313 mammal species are threatened, and a further 9% are close to qualifying for threatened status. "Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to terrestrial mammals in Europe, while the main issue for marine mammals are accidental mortality (e.g., fisheries bycatch), pollution, and overexploitation", according to the report.

Click here to download this report (11.09 MB).

 Non-marine molluscs

European Red List of Non-marine Molluscs

Nearly half of Europe's freshwater molluscs and one fifth of selected terrestrial molluscs are threatened with extinction. "The figures confirm the worrying condition of European molluscs,” said Annabelle Cuttelod, IUCN Coordinator of the European Red List and co-author of the report. “When combined with the high level of threats faced by freshwater fishes and amphibians, we can see that the European freshwater ecosystems are really under serious threats that require urgent conservation action.”

Click here to download this report (3.58 MB).

 Reptiles

European Red List of Reptiles

 

One fifth of Europe’s reptiles are facing high level of threats. "Natural habitats across Europe are being squeezed by growing human populations, agricultural intensification, urban sprawl and pollution. That is not good news for either amphibians or reptiles.” says Dr Helen Temple, co-author of the study and Programme Officer for the Red List Unit.

Click here to download this report (8.77 MB).

Saproxylic Beetles

European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles Saproxylic beetles are highly dependent on decaying wood and play an essential role in recycling nutrients. A third of the 431 species assessed are unique to Europe. Almost 11% are at risk of being lost from the region and a further 13% are listed as Near Threatened within Europe. " The main long-term threats to Saproxilic beetles are habitat loss due to logging and the decline in the number of mature trees." says Ana Nieto, co-author of the report and Biodiversity Conservation Officer at the IUCN Regional Offfice for Pan-Europe.

Click here to download this report (2.07 MB).

Vascular Plants

European Red List of Vascular Plants Plants are essential for life on earth, they provide us with oxygen, food and are important for the functioning of ecosystems. This report analyses the risk of extinction of aquatic plant species, priority crop wild relatives and plant species listed under European and global policy instruments.

Click here to download this report (3.89 MB).

Click here for an excel table of the full list of species and their IUCN Red List Category (Appendix 2).