European Red List of Amphibians

Nearly a quarter of European amphibians are threatened with extinction. “Southern Europe is particularly rich in amphibians but climate change and other threats are placing its freshwater habitats under severe stress," says Dr Helen Temple, co-author of the study and Programme Officer for the IUCN Red List Unit.

Click here to download this report (9.1 MB).


European Red List of Bees

This assessment is the best understanding we have so far of wild bees in Europe”, said Jean-Christophe Vie, Deputy Director, IUCN Global Species Programme. “However, our knowledge about them is incomplete as we are faced with an alarming lack of expertise and resources. […] We must urgently invest in further research in order to provide the best possible recommendations on how to reverse their decline.

Click here to download this report (3.72 MB).


European Red List of Birds

According to Ivan Ramirez, Head of Conservation at BirdLife Europe and Central Asia, “The new European Red List is a call to arms for the conservation of our natural world. It is inspiring to see that many species that have been targeted by conservation efforts are recovering but, on the other hand, it is shocking to see on the threatened list many species that used to be so common as to be part of the landscape. It is deeply worrying to contemplate the possibility of a world with no puffins, turtle doves, lapwings or oystercatchers“.

18% of the 451 species assessed are threatened at EU27 level. This means 82 species, of which 11 are Critically Endangered, 16 Endangered and 55 Vulnerable.

13% of the 533 species assessed are threatened at European level. That makes a total of 67 species, of which 10 are Critically Endangered (the highest threat level). Among them some iconic and popular birds such as: Sociable Lapwing, Yellow-breasted Bunting, Slender-billed Curlew and Balearic Shearwater. The study also found that 18 species are Endangered and an additional 39 Vulnerable.

Click here to download this report (4.96 MB).


Euroepan Red List of Butterflies

 "The rapid decline of so many species is extremely worrying. They point to a major loss of wildlife and wild habitats across Europe. Far more effort is needed to support the traditional farming systems on which many species depend and protect key areas from development”, says Dr Martin Warren, Chief Executive of Butterfly Conservation and one of the report’s authors.

Click here to download this report (2.69 MB).

Dragonflies and Damselflies

European Red List of Dragonflies

 “It is likely things will only get worse for these unique species as climate change and increased water demand take their toll,” says Jean Pierre Boudot, member of the IUCN Dragonfly Specialist Group and co-author of the report. “Lower levels of precipitation and drought will lead to degradation of the habitats where the majority of dragonflies and damselflies live.”

Click here to download this report (1.78 MB).

Freshwater Fishes

European Red List of Freshwater Fishes

"Water is often unsustainably abstracted and free flowing rivers are buried under hydropower lakes. Fishes are an agricultural resource which is widely optimized with alien species. Is this the future of Europe's freshwater fishes?" asks Jörg Freyhof, European chair of the IUCN Freshwater Fish Specialist Group and co-author of the report. "This report contributes to a better understanding on why Europe’s hidden biodiversity heritage is being lost. It is time to act now!"

Click here to download this report (3.63 MB).

Grasshoppers, Crickets & Bush-crickets

European Red List of Grasshoppers, Crickets & Bush-crickets

This IUCN report assessed the extinction risk of 1,082 European grasshoppers, crickets and bush-crickets, revealing that over a quarter are at risk of extinction. The major threats identified were unsustainable agricultural practices and the increasing frequency of wildfires.
Europe’s rapidly changing landscape is affecting many species, including insects we are so familiar with, such as crickets and grasshoppers,” says Jean-Christophe Vié, Deputy Director, IUCN Global Species Programme. “To bring these species back from the brink of extinction, more needs to be done to protect and restore their habitats. This can be done through sustainable grassland management using traditional agricultural practices for example. If we do not act now, the sound of crickets in European grasslands could soon become a thing of the past.

Click here to download this report (6.59 MB).


The Status and Distribution of European Mammals

Nearly one in six (15%) of Europe’s 2313 mammal species are threatened, and a further 9% are close to qualifying for threatened status. "Habitat loss and degradation is the greatest threat to terrestrial mammals in Europe, while the main issue for marine mammals are accidental mortality (e.g., fisheries bycatch), pollution, and overexploitation", according to the report.

Click here to download this report (11.09 MB).

Marine Fishes

European Red List of Marine Fishes

This IUCN report is the first ever complete assessment of marine fishes native to Europe, assessing all of the 1,220 species present in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, and the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, including many highly exploited species that support large commercial, recreational, and artisanal fisheries.

7.5% of all European marine fish species are threatened with extinction in European waters. While some fishes are recovering, marine management has been less successful for many other commercial species. 40.4% of European sharks, rays and chimaeras face an elevated risk of extinction. The population trend for 68.4% of the species is unknown, while 8.4% of the populations are declining, 21.5% are considered stable and 1.7% are increasing.

Click here to download this report (4.15 MB).

Medicinal Plants

European Red List of Medicinal Plants

The populations of 31% of the plants assessed in the study were considered to be declining, and 25% have an unknown trend. The populations of only 3% were found to be increasing, with the remaining 42% considered to have stable populations. “Harvesting from the wild can benefit both the health and livelihoods of collectors and communities, but for this to be sustainable, appropriate management systems need to be in place,” said David Allen, Regional Biodiversity Assessment Officer with IUCN‘s Red List Unit, and lead author of the study. “Tools for sustainable management and collection of wild plants should be applied to improve existing wild harvesting management practices and provide a framework for policies in this area.

Click here to download this report (6.60 MB).

 Non-marine molluscs

European Red List of Non-marine Molluscs

Nearly half of Europe's freshwater molluscs and one fifth of selected terrestrial molluscs are threatened with extinction. "The figures confirm the worrying condition of European molluscs,” said Annabelle Cuttelod, IUCN Coordinator of the European Red List and co-author of the report. “When combined with the high level of threats faced by freshwater fishes and amphibians, we can see that the European freshwater ecosystems are really under serious threats that require urgent conservation action.”

Click here to download this report (3.58 MB).


European Red List of Reptiles

One fifth of Europe’s reptiles are facing high level of threats. "Natural habitats across Europe are being squeezed by growing human populations, agricultural intensification, urban sprawl and pollution. That is not good news for either amphibians or reptiles.” says Dr Helen Temple, co-author of the study and Programme Officer for the Red List Unit.

Click here to download this report (8.77 MB).

Saproxylic Beetles

European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles Saproxylic beetles are highly dependent on decaying wood and play an essential role in recycling nutrients. A third of the 431 species assessed are unique to Europe. Almost 11% are at risk of being lost from the region and a further 13% are listed as Near Threatened within Europe. " The main long-term threats to Saproxilic beetles are habitat loss due to logging and the decline in the number of mature trees." says Ana Nieto, co-author of the report and Biodiversity Conservation Officer at the IUCN Regional Offfice for Pan-Europe.

Click here to download this report (2.07 MB).

Vascular Plants

European Red List of Vascular Plants Plants are essential for life on earth, they provide us with oxygen, food and are important for the functioning of ecosystems. This report analyses the risk of extinction of aquatic plant species, priority crop wild relatives and plant species listed under European and global policy instruments.

Click here to download this report (3.89 MB).

Click here for an excel table of the full list of species and their IUCN Red List Category (Appendix 2).